Dynamics Of Coastal Systems Second Edition

Author: Dronkers Job
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814725161
Size: 24.32 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 5561
Download
The book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the physical processes which, according to the present state of knowledge, determine the evolution of coastal systems and their response to human interventions. This response depends to a large degree on the self-organising properties of coastal dynamics, which form a leading theme throughout the book. The basic theoretical ideas are explained in text and figures and also in formulas for the more mathematically inclined reader. Theories are illustrated with examples from estuaries, coastal lagoons, beaches and tidal flat systems from all over the world. The rules and simple models can be used directly without relying on complex computations; much attention is given to the strengths and weaknesses of the underlying theories and their limits of applicability. The book is fully self-contained; some knowledge of basic physics and mathematics is recommended. The book is an upgrade of the first edition. Most parts are rewritten and chapters are added to incorporate research results, new insight and experience of the past ten years. This book is intended for everyone interested in coastal systems for professional or educational reasons.

Microbial Nitrogen Cycling Dynamics In Coastal Systems

Author:
Publisher: Stanford University
ISBN:
Size: 51.36 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 611
Download
Human influence on the global nitrogen cycle (e.g., through fertilizer and wastewater runoff) has caused a suite of environmental problems including acidification, loss of biodiversity, increased concentrations of greenhouse gases, and eutrophication. These environmental risks can be lessened by microbial transformations of nitrogen; nitrification converts ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, which can then be lost to the atmosphere as N2 gas via denitrification or anammox. Microbial processes thus determine the fate of excess nitrogen and yet recent discoveries suggest that our understanding of these organisms is deficient. This dissertation focuses on microbial transformations of nitrogen in marine and estuarine systems through laboratory and field studies, using techniques from genomics, microbial ecology, and microbiology. Recent studies revealed that many archaea can oxidize ammonia (AOA; ammonia-oxidizing archaea), in addition to the well-described ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Considering that these archaea are among the most abundant organisms on Earth, these findings have necessitated a reevaluation of nitrification to determine the relative contribution of AOA and AOB to overall rates and to determine if previous models of global nitrogen cycling require adjustment to include the AOA. I examined the distribution, diversity, and abundance of AOA and AOB in the San Francisco Bay estuary and found that the region of the estuary with low-salinity and high C:N ratios contained a group of AOA that were both abundant and phylogenetically distinct. In most of the estuary where salinity was high and C:N ratios were low, AOB were more abundant than AOA—despite the fact that AOA outnumber AOB in soils and the ocean, the two end members of an estuary. This study suggested that a combination of environmental factors including carbon, nitrogen, and salinity determine the niche distribution of the two groups of ammonia-oxidizers. In order to gain insight into the genetic basis for ammonia oxidation by estuarine AOA, we sequenced the genome of a new genus of AOA from San Francisco Bay using single cell genomics. The genome data revealed that the AOA have genes for both autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon metabolism, unlike the autotrophic AOB. These AOA may be chemotactic and motile based on numerous chemotaxis and motility-associated genes in the genome and electron microscopy evidence of flagella. Physiological studies showed that the AOA grow aerobically but they also oxidize ammonia at low oxygen concentrations and may produce the potent greenhouse gas N2O. Continued cultivation and genomic sequencing of AOA will allow for in-depth studies on the physiological and metabolic potential of this novel group of organisms that will ultimately advance our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Denitrifying bacteria are widespread in coastal and estuarine environments and account for a significant reduction of external nitrogen inputs, thereby diminishing the amount of bioavailable nitrogen and curtailing the harmful effects of nitrogen pollution. I determined the abundance, community structure, biogeochemical activity, and ecology of denitrifiers over space and time in the San Francisco Bay estuary. Salinity, carbon, nitrogen and some metals were important factors for denitrification rates, abundance, and community structure. Overall, this study provided valuable new insights into the microbial ecology of estuarine denitrifying communities and suggested that denitrifiers likely play an important role in nitrogen removal in San Francisco Bay, particularly at high salinity sites.

Dynamics Of Coastal Systems

Author: Job Dronkers
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814480746
Size: 11.44 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
View: 3115
Download
Dynamics of Coastal Systems is about the dynamic interaction between water motion and seabed topography, which affects the natural response of coastal systems to change in external conditions and to human interventions — from the scale of seabed ripples up to the scale of entire barrier and delta systems. The book highlights major concepts developed during the past 50 years for the description of current-topography, tide-topography and wave-topography interactions. It provides simple analytical tools and models for diagnosing and predicting coastal response to change, with references to a great variety of coastal systems around the world. These concepts and tools are crucial for sustainable management of beaches, deltas and coastal wetlands. The book is based on a master course on coastal morphodynamics given at the Universities of Utrecht and Delft in The Netherlands for graduate students who are familiar with the basic concepts of coastal hydrodynamics. It enables coastal engineers to complete their background knowledge and to facilitate access to cutting-edge scientific literature on specific topics. The book may also serve to familiarise consultants, practitioners and academics in related coastal disciplines with modern concepts of land-sea interaction. Contents:Morphodynamic FeedbackCurrent-Topography InteractionTide-Topography InteractionWave-Topography Interaction Readership: Graduate students, engineers, researchers, academics, lecturers, practitioners, consultants and professionals. Keywords:Coastal Morphodynamics;Coastal Geomorphology;Coastal Hydraulics;Self-Organisation;Stability Analysis;Tides Waves;Estuary;Barrier Coast;River DeltaKey Features:Simple and practical tools for analysing and predicting coastal changesIntroduction to modern concepts of coastal morphodynamics for non-specialistsUnifying presentation of morphodynamics for a great variety of coastal systems

Coastal Zones

Author: Juan Baztan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128027592
Size: 67.38 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 4020
Download
Coastal Zones: Solutions for the 21st Century bridges the gap between national and international efforts and the local needs for actions in communities where coastal zone challenges are faced daily. The solution-oriented approach covers issues of coastal zone management as well as responses to natural disasters. This work provides ideas on how to face the challenges, develop solutions, and localize management of common-pool resources. Coastal Zones targets academic stakeholders and coastal stakeholders who have local knowledge and experience but need a theoretical framework and a greater range of skills to make use of this experience. Represents the collaborative work of more than 200 coastal zone researchers from all continents Provides a transdisciplinary approach that draws on stakeholder knowledge as well as diverse disciplines in the natural and social sciences Provides a basis for the co-development of an effective understanding of social-ecological systems in the coastal zone

Coastal Dynamics 2005

Author: AgustÁn SÊnchez-Arcilla
Publisher: ASCE Publications
ISBN: 9780784471586
Size: 21.41 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 1445
Download
Proceedings of the Fifth International Coastal Dynamics Conference, held in Barcelona, Spain, April 4-8, 2005. Sponsored by Laboratori D.enginyeria Martima Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. Supported by International Centre for Coastal Resources Research; E.T.S. D?enginyers de Camins, CanalsØi Ports de Barcelona; D.G. de Investigacion, Ministerio de EducacionØy Ciencia; D.G. de Costas, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente; Dursi, Generalitat de Catalunya; Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya. With cooperation of the Coasts, Oceans, Ports, and Rivers Institute of ASCE. This collection contains 118 papersØcomprising a valuable source of information on coastal dynamics from the latest research to the newest engineering applications.ØCoastal zones are fragile environments that support many conflicting uses, particularly in developed countries. To diagnose and mitigate problems, the complex dynamics of coastal zones, especially processes and scales, must be carefully analyzed. These papers investigate the coexistence of scales and the roles they play in episodic events.Ø Topics include: bed/suspended fluxes, coarse to silt sediments, morphodynamics in various environments, sediment fluxes with and without structures, and the interaction with climactic drivers and coastal structures at various scales.

Dynamics Of Coastal Systems Second Edition

Author: Job Dronkers
Publisher: Advanced Series on Ocean Engin
ISBN: 9789813143739
Size: 23.48 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 3427
Download
The book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the physical processes which, according to the present state of knowledge, determine the evolution of coastal systems and their response to human interventions. This response depends to a large degree on the self-organising properties of coastal dynamics, which form a leading theme throughout the book. The basic theoretical ideas are explained in text and figures and also in formulas for the more mathematically inclined reader. Theories are illustrated with examples from estuaries, coastal lagoons, beaches and tidal flat systems from all over the world. The rules and simple models can be used directly without relying on complex computations; much attention is given to the strengths and weaknesses of the underlying theories and their limits of applicability. The book is fully self-contained; some knowledge of basic physics and mathematics is recommended. The book is an upgrade of the first edition. Most parts are rewritten and chapters are added to incorporate research results, new insight and experience of the past ten years. This book is intended for everyone interested in coastal systems for professional or educational reasons.

Advances In Coastal Modeling

Author: V.C. Lakhan
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080526645
Size: 59.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 3342
Download
This book unifies and enhances the accessibility of contemporary scholarly research on advances in coastal modeling. A comprehensive spectrum of innovative models addresses the wide diversity and multifaceted aspects of coastal research on the complex natural processes, dynamics, interactions and responses of the coastal supersystem and its associated subsystems. The twenty-one chapters, contributed by internationally recognized coastal experts from fourteen countries, provide invaluable insights on the recent advances and present state-of-the-art knowledge on coastal models which are essential for not only illuminating the governing coastal process and various characteristics, but also for understanding and predicting the dynamics at work in the coastal system. One of the unique strengths of the book is the impressive and encompassing presentation of current functional and operational coastal models for all those concerned with and interested in the modeling of seas, oceans and coasts. In addition to chapters modeling the dynamic natural processes of waves, currents, circulatory flows and sediment transport there are also chapters that focus on the modeling of beaches, shorelines, tidal basins and shore platforms. The substantial scope of the book is further strengthened with chapters concentrating on the effects of coastal structures on nearshore flows, coastal water quality, coastal pollution, coastal ecological modeling, statistical data modeling, and coupling of coastal models with geographical information systems.

Tidal Mixing And Plankton Dynamics

Author: Malcolm J. Bowman
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146124966X
Size: 22.39 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 6683
Download
This book represents an outgrowth of an interdisciplinary session held at the Seventh International Estuarine Research Federation Conference held at Virginia Beach, Virginia, OCLober 1983. At that meeting, the participants agreed to contribute to and develop a monograph entitled "Tidal Mixing and Plankton Dynamics" by inviting an expanded group of authors to contribute chapters on this theme. The emphasis would be to review and summarize the considerable body of knowledge that has accumulated over the last decade or so on the fundamental role tidal mixing plays in energetic shallow seas and estuaries in stimulating and controlling biological production. We have attempted to provide a mix of contributions, composed of reviews of the state-of-the-art, reports on current research activi ties, summaries of the design and testing of a new generation of innovative instruments for biological and chemical sampling and sorting, and some imaginative ideas for future experiments on stimulated mixing in continental shelf seas. We encouraged the contributors to present critical and thought provoking assessments of current wisdom specifying the sorts of techniques and observational strategies needed to validate the various hypotheses linking physical structure, mixing and circulation to plankton biomass and production. We hope this volume will appeal to incoming research students and established scholars alike. We certainly have enjoyed working with all the authors in compiling this book. We thank the numerous scientists who have served as reviewers, P. Boisvert for typing the manuscripts and W. Bellows for proofreading.

Coastal Management In Australia

Author: Brian Caton
Publisher: University of Adelaide Press
ISBN: 0980723035
Size: 53.53 MB
Format: PDF
View: 3350
Download
"The coast is one of our most valuable assets but how is it being treated and what is being done to look after it? Coastal Management in Australia is the first book to provide a comprehensive overview of this important subject. Interesting case studies are used to illustrate human impact on coastal processes as well as demonstrating the global significance of the coast and the international imperative to manage it properly. Coastal Management in Australia introduces the background to the various coastal management systems operating in Australia and illustrates these with 'real world' examples from the different states and territories. Since this book was first published yet another parliamentary inquiry has been added to some 30 years of national inquiries into coastal management, with further calls for national co-ordination. In addition, the Australian government has focused attention on the potential risks of climate change for the Australian coast. Both authors have national and international coastal expertise; significant academic teaching experience in coastal processes and coastal management; coastal planning and policy skills; and have extensive government expertise in coastal management"--Publisher's description.