Directions In Strong Motion Instrumentation

Author: Polat Gülkan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402038127
Size: 51.74 MB
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Strong ground motion measuring and recording instruments play a major role in mitigation of seismic risk. The strong ground motion near the source of an earthquake describes the effects that endanger our built environment, and is also the most detailed clue concerning the source mechanism of the earthquake. The range of complexity that engulfs our understanding of the source parameters of a major earthquake (extent of the source mechanism, stress drop, wave propagation patterns) and how buildings and other works of construction respond to ground-transmitted dynamic effects may be overpowered by improved direct observations. Strong motion seismographs provide the information that enables scientists and engineers to resolve the many issues that are intertwined with practical problems of building safe communities worldwide. They may be installed as arrays close to major fault zones, consisting of many instruments arranged in some geometrical pattern, or in the vicinity and mounted on buildings. This book, which contains papers by invited authorities, represents a unique interaction between seismologists and earthquake engineers who examine issues of mutual concern in an overlapping area of major interest. The papers have been grouped around three major areas. -Seismic Hazard and Extreme Motions -Engineering Uses of Strong Motion Seismograms -Arrays and Observations.

Treatise On Geophysics

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444538038
Size: 20.75 MB
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Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole

Monitoring With Lichens Monitoring Lichens

Author: Pier Luigi Nimis
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401004234
Size: 10.94 MB
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A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.

Submarine Landslides And Tsunamis

Author: Ahmet C. Yalçiner
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401002053
Size: 32.34 MB
Format: PDF
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Tsunamis are water waves triggered by impulsive geologic events such as sea floor deformation, landslides, slumps, subsidence, volcanic eruptions and bolide impacts. Tsunamis can inflict significant damage and casualties both nearfield and after evolving over long propagation distances and impacting distant coastlines. Tsunamis can also effect geomorphologic changes along the coast. Understanding tsunami generation and evolution is of paramount importance for protecting coastal population at risk, coastal structures and the natural environment. Accurately and reliably predicting the initial waveform and the associated coastal effects of tsunamis remains one of the most vexing problems in geophysics, and -with few exceptions- has resisted routine numerical computation or data collection solutions. While ten years ago, it was believed that the generation problem was adequately understood for useful predictions, it is now clear that it is not, especially nearfield. By contrast, the runup problem earlier believed intractable is now well understood for all but the most extreme breaking wave events.

Basic Earthquake Engineering

Author: Halûk Sucuoğlu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319010263
Size: 21.28 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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This book provides senior undergraduate students, master students and structural engineers who do not have a background in the field with core knowledge of structural earthquake engineering that will be invaluable in their professional lives. The basics of seismotectonics, including the causes, magnitude, and intensity of earthquakes, are first explained. Then the book introduces basic elements of seismic hazard analysis and presents the concept of a seismic hazard map for use in seismic design. Subsequent chapters cover key aspects of the response analysis of simple systems and building structures to earthquake ground motions, design spectrum, the adoption of seismic analysis procedures in seismic design codes, seismic design principles and seismic design of reinforced concrete structures. Helpful worked examples on seismic analysis of linear, nonlinear and base isolated buildings, earthquake-resistant design of frame and frame-shear wall systems are included, most of which can be solved using a hand calculator.

Photovoltaic And Photoactive Materials

Author: Joseph M. Marshall
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781402008245
Size: 51.52 MB
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The primary objective of this NATO Advanced Study Institute (ASI) was to present an up-to-date overview of various current areas of interest in the field of photovoltaic and related photoactive materials. This is a wide-ranging subject area, of significant commercial and environmental interest, and involves major contributions from the disciplines of physics, chemistry, materials, electrical and instrumentation engineering, commercial realisation etc. Therefore, we sought to adopt an inter disciplinary approach, bringing together recognised experts in the various fields while retaining a level of treatment accessible to those active in specific individual areas of research and development. The lecture programme commenced with overviews of the present relevance and historical development of the subject area, plus an introduction to various underlying physical principles of importance to the materials and devices to be addressed in later lectures. Building upon this, the ASI then progressed to more detailed aspects of the subject area. We were also fortunately able to obtain a contribution from Thierry Langlois d'Estaintot of the European Commission Directorate, describing present and future EC support for activities in this field. In addition, poster sessions were held throughout the meeting, to allow participants to present and discuss their current activities. These were supported by what proved to be very effective feedback sessions (special thanks to Martin Stutzmann), prior to which groups of participants enthusiastically met (often in the bar) to identify and agree topics of common interest.

Environmental Simulation Chambers Application To Atmospheric Chemical Processes

Author: Ian Barnes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1402042329
Size: 67.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Atmospheric pollution has many different detrimental impacts on air quality at urban, regional and global scales. Large volume photoreactors (often referred to as smog or simulation chambers) have been used very effectively to investigate and understand many varied aspects of atmospheric chemistry related to air pollution problems. Photochemical smog formation, which was first observed around 1945 in Los Angeles, is now a major environmental problem for all industrialised and densely populated regions of the world. Over the years many different modelling and experimental tools have been developed to analyse and simulate the complex chemical processes associated with tropspheric photooxidant formation. Work in environmental chambers has played a key role in the development of our understanding of the atmospheric chemistry associated with pollution problems on local, regional and global scales. Chamber observations have also been used in connection with environmental policy issues. In general they are used for validation of atmospheric chemical models, studies of chemical reaction mechanisms and as a direct means to test the possible impact of specific chemical compounds on air quality under simulated ambient conditions New large smog chamber installations have been recently developed in the US (Riverside, California), Europe (Jülich, Germany) and Japan, and a large number of smaller scale laboratory chambers are in operation around the world. Over the years there have been numerous new technical developments related to environmental chamber facilities such as the design of the chambers (e. g.