On The Power Of Fuzzy Markup Language

Author: Giovanni Acampora
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642354882
Size: 80.80 MB
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One of the most successful methodology that arose from the worldwide diffusion of Fuzzy Logic is Fuzzy Control. After the first attempts dated in the seventies, this methodology has been widely exploited for controlling many industrial components and systems. At the same time, and very independently from Fuzzy Logic or Fuzzy Control, the birth of the Web has impacted upon almost all aspects of computing discipline. Evolution of Web, Web2.0 and Web 3.0 has been making scenarios of ubiquitous computing much more feasible; consequently information technology has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities. What happens when Fuzzy Logic meets Web technology? Interesting results might come out, as you will discover in this book. Fuzzy Mark-up Language is a son of this synergistic view, where some technological issues of Web are re-interpreted taking into account the transparent notion of Fuzzy Control, as discussed here. The concept of a Fuzzy Control that is conceived and modeled in terms of a native web wisdom represents another step towards the last picture of Pervasive Web Intelligence.

Negotiated Reform

Author: Renate Mayntz
Publisher: Campus Verlag
ISBN: 3593505517
Size: 73.49 MB
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Extensive literature already exists on the causes and development of the recent financial crisis and the political measures taken to manage it. This book brings together a group of renowned social scientists to focus on the interplay between international, European and national decision-making processes in the reform of financial market regulation. Are those states affected by the crisis adopting internationally negotiated regulations? Or are they instead determining the European and international reform agenda? Are the policies being agreed contributing to greater harmonization of financial regulation in a multilevel political system? Or is the process being dominated by differing national interests? The dominant concern of this book is the way in which the given multilevel structure of financial market regulation has shaped the reform process triggered by the recent financial crisis. Following an agreed set of questions, an international group of scholars deal in separate chapters with the role in the reform process played by international organizations, European authorities, and regulators in the USA, the United Kingdom, and Germany. To provide a detailed view of the vertical and horizontal interactions between these actors, the analysis focuses on a small set of reform issues, including bank structure, bank capital, resolution, and OTC trading of derivatives. The analysis shows to what extent actors at a given political level have both responded to, and shaped reform initiatives in other countries and at other political levels. Consideration is also given to a general shift in international governance, using financial market regulation as a case in point. The final chapter summarizes the pattern of multilevel policy-making resulting from the empirical analyses, highlighting features that distinguish it from familiar studies of multilevel governance in federal regimes and in the European Union.

The Green Paradox

Author: Hans-Werner Sinn
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262300583
Size: 48.51 MB
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The Earth is getting warmer. Yet, as Hans-Werner Sinn points out in this provocative book, the dominant policy approach -- which aims to curb consumption of fossil energy -- has been ineffective. Despite policy makers' efforts to promote alternative energy, impose emission controls on cars, and enforce tough energy-efficiency standards for buildings, the relentlessly rising curve of CO2 output does not show the slightest downward turn. Some proposed solutions are downright harmful: cultivating crops to make biofuels not only contributes to global warming but also uses resources that should be devoted to feeding the world's hungry. In The Green Paradox, Sinn proposes a new, more pragmatic approach based not on regulating the demand for fossil fuels but on controlling the supply. The owners of carbon resources, Sinn explains, are pre-empting future regulation by accelerating the production of fossil energy while they can. This is the "Green Paradox": expected future reduction in carbon consumption has the effect of accelerating climate change. Sinn suggests a supply-side solution: inducing the owners of carbon resources to leave more of their wealth underground. He proposes the swift introduction of a "Super-Kyoto" system -- gathering all consumer countries into a cartel by means of a worldwide, coordinated cap-and-trade system supported by the levying of source taxes on capital income -- to spoil the resource owners' appetite for financial assets.Only if we can shift our focus from local demand to worldwide supply policies for reducing carbon emissions, Sinn argues, will we have a chance of staving off climate disaster.

Experiments In Ethics

Author: Anthony Appiah
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674026094
Size: 37.64 MB
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Introduction: The waterless moat -- The case against character -- The case against intuition -- The varieties of moral experience -- The ends of ethics.

The Global Administrative Law Of Science

Author: Matthias Ruffert
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642213595
Size: 19.78 MB
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We live in a world of science. Yet this is impossible without a legally guaranteed freedom to practise it. Findings with regard to the elements of such freedom can be deduced from an analysis of international and domestic provisions and principles. There are a plethora of international institutions, legal rules and global norms for the purpose of the international governance of science. The institutions and rules are to be interpreted in light of this freedom to guarantee the continuous existence of the knowledge-based society by means of a global administrative law of science. These aspects were analysed in a research project funded by the German Research Foundation. The book’s purpose is to present the jurisprudential results. In addition, empirical results are collected in a freely available database. The study is composed of 5 parts: The Concept of Science/Global Administrative Law/Constitutional Basis: The Freedom of Science/Institutional Design/Governance Mechanisms.

Prohibition Religious Freedom And Human Rights Regulating Traditional Drug Use

Author: Beatriz Caiuby Labate
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642409571
Size: 30.91 MB
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This book addresses the use and regulation of traditional drugs such as peyote, ayahuasca, coca leaf, cannabis, khat and Salvia divinorum. The uses of these substances can often be found at the intersection of diverse areas of life, including politics, medicine, shamanism, religion, aesthetics, knowledge transmission, socialization, and celebration. The collection analyzes how some of these psychoactive plants have been progressively incorporated and regulated in developed Western societies by both national legislation and by the United Nations Drug Conventions. It focuses mainly, but not only, on the debates in court cases around the world involving the claim of religious use and the legal definitions of “religion.” It further touches upon issues of human rights and cognitive liberty as they relate to the consumption of drugs. While this collection emphasizes certain uses of psychoactive substances in different cultures and historical periods, it is also useful for thinking about the consumption of drugs in general in contemporary societies. The cultural and informal controls discussed here represent alternatives to the current merely prohibitionist policies, which are linked to the spread of illicit and violent markets. By addressing the disputes involved in the regulation of traditional drug use, this volume reflects on notions such as origin, place, authenticity, and tradition, thereby relating drug policy to broader social science debates.

Recommender Systems And The Social Web

Author: Fatih Gedikli
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3658019484
Size: 21.38 MB
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​There is an increasing demand for recommender systems due to the information overload users are facing on the Web. The goal of a recommender system is to provide personalized recommendations of products or services to users. With the advent of the Social Web, user-generated content has enriched the social dimension of the Web. As user-provided content data also tells us something about the user, one can learn the user’s individual preferences from the Social Web. This opens up completely new opportunities and challenges for recommender systems research. Fatih Gedikli deals with the question of how user-provided tagging data can be used to build better recommender systems. A tag recommender algorithm is proposed which recommends tags for users to annotate their favorite online resources. The author also proposes algorithms which exploit the user-provided tagging data and produce more accurate recommendations. On the basis of this idea, he shows how tags can be used to explain to the user the automatically generated recommendations in a clear and intuitively understandable form. With his book, Fatih Gedikli gives us an outlook on the next generation of recommendation systems in the Social Web sphere.

Tool Based Requirement Traceability Between Requirement And Design Artifacts

Author: Bernhard Turban
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3834824747
Size: 63.41 MB
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Processes for developing safety-critical systems impose special demands on ensuring requirements traceability. Achieving valuable traceability information, however, is especially difficult concerning the transition from requirements to design. Bernhard Turban analyzes systems and software engineering theories cross-cutting the issue (embedded systems development, systems engineering, software engineering, requirements engineering and management, design theory and processes for safety-critical systems). As a solution, the author proposes a new tool approach to support designers in their thinking in order to achieve traceability as a by-product to normal design activities and to extend traceability information with information about design decision rationale.

The Status Of Legal Ethics

Author: Paweł Skuczyński
Publisher: Peter Lang Gmbh, Internationaler Verlag Der Wissenschaften
ISBN: 9783631641330
Size: 19.56 MB
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"The present work has been completed on the basis of my doctoral thesis, only editorially changed, entitled "Philosophical and Methodological Status of Legal Ethics," prepared and defended at the Faculty of Law and Administration of Warsaw University" -- Introduction.