Development Policy In Small Countries

Author: Percy Selwyn
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136876960
Size: 80.98 MB
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First published in 1975, the main emphasis of this reissued collection is on the various aspects of dependence to which small countries as such are subject, and the policy options in the political and economic field which are open to them.

Small Enterprises And Economic Development

Author: Carl E. Liedholm
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1135118159
Size: 66.62 MB
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Micro and small enterprises (MSEs) have been recognized as a major contemporary source of employment and income in a growing number of developing countries. Yet, relatively little is known about the characteristics and patterns of change in these enterprises. This volume examines the dynamics of MSEs in the development process. Drawing on a unique set of surveys conducted in twelve countries in Africa and Latin America the authors map the patterns of change in MSEs in the developing world. Subjects covered include: * significance of new start and closure rates of MSEs * factors involved in expansion rates and growth patterns of MSEs * the role of gender in MSEs evolution.

The Service Sector And Economic Development In Africa

Author: Evelyn Wamboye
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 9781138646810
Size: 61.53 MB
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The service sector accounts for a huge proportion of global employment, and is the biggest driver of gross domestic product in developing nations. Yet there has been little research uncovering its scope, potential and implications on sustained and inclusive economic growth. This is especially true for Africa, which has seen a strong growth trajectory in recent years. This book presents a new frontier of research, offering insightful perspectives on the 21st century realities of the service sector and its effect on economic development in Africa. The analysis presented here will be of relevance to all academics and policymakers with an interest in Africa's role in the global economy.

The Shared Space

Author: Milton Santos
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351594079
Size: 75.16 MB
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Originally published in 1979. In this forcefully argued book, Milton Santos shows that contemporary explanations of urbanization and spatial organization in underdeveloped countries are inadequate. This failure is attributable to their origins in theories elaborated to explain the development of advanced Western societies. Santos' work provides the basis for the new theory which is so badly needed. He describes the urban economy in these countries in terms of two circuits of activity – an upper circuit consisting of those enterprises and structures which are based on modern technology and are oriented towards the advanced capitalist world, and a lower circuit comprised of more traditional processes and forms of exchange. The dialectical interaction of these two circuits is seen to generate the patterns of growth, forms of State intervention and, above all, the spatial organization characteristic of Third World economies. This was a revision and translation of L’Espace Partagé (1975).

Globalization Political Institutions And The Environment In Developing Countries

Author: Gabriele Spilker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 0415638496
Size: 79.18 MB
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Though industrialized countries are usually the ones indicted when environmental pollution is discussed, over the few last years the rate of emissions in developing countries has increased by a startling amount. The fallout from this increase is evidenced by the struggle of cities like Beijing to improve their air quality. Yet there also exist developing countries such as Thailand that have managed to limit their emissions to more tolerable levels, raising the question: why are some developing countries more willing or able to take care of their environment than others? In this volume, Gabriele Spilker proposes two factors for the differences in developing countries' environmental performance: integration into the international system and domestic political institutions. Focusing on developing countries generally but also closely examining important global powers such as China and India, Spilker employs a rigorous quantitative analysis to demonstrate the importance of considering various aspects of the international system, in order to draw more comprehensive conclusions about how globalization affects environmental performance. She asserts that democratic political institutions can shield developing countries from the negative consequences of either trade or foreign direct investment. But at the same time, developing countries, by avoiding demanding commitments, are more likely to use environmental treaties as a cover than as a real plan of action. Adding a new dimension to the existing body of research on environmental quality and commitment, Spilker convincingly demonstrates how international and domestic political factors interact to shape developing countries' ability and willingness to care for their natural environment.

Social Protection In Developing Countries

Author: Katja Bender
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136178503
Size: 42.37 MB
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Providing universal access to social protection and health systems for all members of society, including the poor and vulnerable, is increasingly considered crucial to international development debates. This is the first book to explore from an interdisciplinary and global perspective the reforms of social protection systems introduced in recent years by many governments of low and middle-income countries. Although a growing body of literature has been concerned with the design and impact of social protection, less attention has been directed towards analyzing and explaining these reform processes themselves. Through case studies of African, Asian, and Latin American countries, this book examines the ‘global phenomenon’ of recent social protection reforms in low and middle-income areas, and how it differs across countries both in terms of scope and speed of institutional change. Exploring the major domestic and international factors affecting the political feasibility of social protection reform, the book outlines the successes and failures of recent reform initiatives. This invaluable book combines contributions from both academics and practitioner experts to give students, researchers and practitioners in the fields of social security, economics, law and political science an in-depth understanding of political reform processes in developing countries.

Public Policy And Agricultural Development

Author: Ha-Joon Chang
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1136635289
Size: 45.12 MB
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This book critically re-examines the currently dominant paradigm of agricultural development policy from historical and comparative perspectives. Examining the experiences of 11 developed countries in their earlier stages of development and the experiences of 10 developing and transition economies in the last half a century, the book offers an in-depth discussion on a range of public policies for agriculture, some currently in use and others forgotten in the mist of history. After presenting the overarching theoretical framework and a synthesis of findings over the 21 countries examined, the book presents six detailed case studies of agricultural policy in the last half a century in two Latin American countries (Chile and Mexico), two African countries (Ethiopia and Ghana), and two Asian countries (India and Vietnam). Each chapter examines a wide range of policies, including land policy (land tenure reform and land quality improvement), knowledge policy (research, extension, education, and information), credit policy (specialized banks and agricultural credit co-operatives), physical inputs policy (irrigation, transport, electricity, and divisible inputs such as fertilizers, seeds, and farm machinery), policies intended to increase farm income stability (price stabilization measures, insurances, and trade protection), and policies intended to improve agricultural marketing and processing. Through its historical and comparative approaches, the book frees our "policy imagination" by showing that the range of policies and institutions that have produced positive outcomes for agricultural development has been much wider than any particular ideological position – be it the pre-1980s statist one or the pro-market NCW – would admit. It also shows that the willingness to experiment with new policies and institutions, and the willingness to learn from other countries’ successes and improve upon their solutions, were important in all agricultural success stories.

Human Resource Management In Developing Countries

Author: Pawan S. Budhwar
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134594828
Size: 22.19 MB
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Focusing on HRM developments in thirteen developing countries across Asia, Africa and the Middle East, this book explores the contextual functions of HR in these countries. In addition, it analyzes the more general issues of HRM in cross-national settings to give readers an understanding of HR that is both comparative and contextual. Covering the policies and practices of China, South Korea, Taiwan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Algeria, Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya and South Africa, each chapter follows a framework that draws out all of the unique and diverse configurations of HRM. This important text is an invaluable resource for all HRM practitioners, students and scholars of HRM, international HRM and international business.

Gender And Development

Author: Janet Momsen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 113527519X
Size: 66.25 MB
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Global financial problems, rising food prices, climate change, international migration – increasingly by women – conflict situations in many poor countries, the spread of tropical diseases such as malaria and dengue fever and the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS and TB, and changing patterns of trade have all added new dimensions to gender issues in developing countries. These problems are frequently being brought to public attention in the media and through long-haul tourism. Consequently students’ interest in gender and development has grown considerably in the last few years. This updated second edition provides a concise, accessible introduction to Gender and Development issues in the developing world and in the transition countries of Eastern and Central Europe. The nine chapters include discussions on changes in theoretical approaches, gender complexities and the Millennium Development Goals; social and biological reproduction including differing attitudes to family planning by states and variation in education and access to housing; differences in health and violence at major life stages for women and men and natural disasters and gender roles in rural and urban areas. The penultimate chapter considers the impact of broad economic changes such as the globalization of trade and communications on gender differences in economic activity and the final chapter addresses international progress towards gender equality as measured by the global gender gap. The text is particularly strong on environmental aspects and the new edition builds on this to consider the effects of climate change and declining natural resources illustrated by a case study of changing gender roles in fishing in India. There is also enhanced coverage of topics such as global trade, sport as a development tool, masculinities, and sustainable agriculture. Maps, statistics, references and boxed case studies have been updated throughout and their coverage widened. Gender and Development is the only broad based introduction to the topic written specifically for a student audience. It features student friendly items such as chapter learning objectives, discussion questions, annotated guides to further reading and websites. The text is enlivened throughout with examples and case studies drawn from the author’s worldwide field research and consultancies with international development agencies over four decades and her experience of teaching the topic to undergraduates and postgraduates in many countries. It will be an essential text for a variety of courses on development, women’s studies, sociology, anthropology and geography.

Remaking Regional Economies

Author: Susan Christopherson
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134247419
Size: 79.16 MB
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Since the early 1980s, the region has been central to thinking about the emerging character of the global economy. In fields as diverse as business management, industrial relations, economic geography, sociology, and planning, the regional scale has emerged as an organizing concept for interpretations of economic change. This book is both a critique of the "new regionalism" and a return to the "regional question," including all of its concerns with equity and uneven development. It will challenge researchers and students to consider the region as a central scale of action in the global economy. At the core of the book are case studies of two industries that rely on skilled, innovative, and flexible workers - the optics and imaging industry and the film and television industry. Combined with this is a discussion of the regions that constitute their production centers. The authors’ intensive research on photonics and entertainment media firms, both large and small, leads them to question some basic assumptions behind the new regionalism and to develop an alternative framework for understanding regional economic development policy. Finally, there is a re-examination of what the regional question means for the concept of the learning region. This book draws on the rich contemporary literature on the region but also addresses theoretical questions that preceded "the new regionalism." It will contribute to teaching and research in a range of social science disciplines.