Detecting Lies And Deceit

Author: Aldert Vrij
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119965764
Size: 13.30 MB
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Why do people lie? Do gender and personality differences affect how people lie? How can lies be detected? Detecting Lies and Deceit provides the most comprehensive review of deception to date. This revised edition provides an up-to-date account of deception research and discusses the working and efficacy of the most commonly used lie detection tools, including: Behaviour Analysis Interview Statement Validity Assessment Reality Monitoring Scientific Content Analysis Several different polygraph tests Voice Stress Analysis Thermal Imaging EEG-P300 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) All three aspects of deception are covered: nonverbal cues, speech and written statement analysis and (neuro)physiological responses. The most common errors in lie detection are discussed and practical guidelines are provided to help professionals improve their lie detection skills. Detecting Lies and Deceit is a must-have resource for students, academics and professionals in psychology, criminology, policing and law.

Detecting Deception

Author: Pär Anders Granhag
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118509757
Size: 67.65 MB
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Detecting Deception offers a state-of-the-art guide to the detection of deception with a focus on the ways in which new cognitive psychology-based approaches can improve practice and results in the field. Includes comprehensive coverage of the latest scientific developments in the detection of deception and their implications for real-world practice Examines current challenges in the field - such as counter-interrogation strategies, lying networks, cross-cultural deception, and discriminating between true and false intentions Reveals a host of new approaches based on cognitive psychology with the potential to improve practice and results, including the strategic use of evidence, imposing cognitive load, response times, and covert lie detection Features contributions from internationally renowned experts

Automatic Detection Of Verbal Deception

Author: Eileen Fitzpatrick
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
ISBN: 1627053387
Size: 36.84 MB
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The attempt to spot deception through its correlates in human behavior has a long history. Until recently, these efforts have concentrated on identifying individual "cues" that might occur with deception. However, with the advent of computational means to analyze language and other human behavior, we now have the ability to determine whether there are consistent clusters of differences in behavior that might be associated with a false statement as opposed to a true one. While its focus is on verbal behavior, this book describes a range of behaviors—physiological, gestural as well as verbal—that have been proposed as indicators of deception. An overview of the primary psychological and cognitive theories that have been offered as explanations of deceptive behaviors gives context for the description of specific behaviors. The book also addresses the differences between data collected in a laboratory and "real-world" data with respect to the emotional and cognitive state of the liar. It discusses sources of real-world data and problematic issues in its collection and identifies the primary areas in which applied studies based on real-world data are critical, including police, security, border crossing, customs, and asylum interviews; congressional hearings; financial reporting; legal depositions; human resource evaluation; predatory communications that include Internet scams, identity theft, and fraud; and false product reviews. Having established the background, this book concentrates on computational analyses of deceptive verbal behavior that have enabled the field of deception studies to move from individual cues to overall differences in behavior. The computational work is organized around the features used for classification from n-gram through syntax to predicate-argument and rhetorical structure. The book concludes with a set of open questions that the computational work has generated.

The Foundations Of Behavioral Economic Analysis

Author: Sanjit Dhami
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191024864
Size: 29.14 MB
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This is the first definitive introduction to behavioral economics aimed at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students. Authoritative, cutting edge, yet accessible, it guides the reader through theory and evidence, providing engaging and relevant applications throughout. It is divided into nine parts and 24 chapters: Part I is on behavioral economics of risk, uncertainty, and ambiguity. The evidence against expected utility theory is examined, and the behavioral response is outlined; the best empirically supported theory is prospect theory. Part II considers other-regarding preferences. The evidence from experimental games on human sociality is given, followed by models and applications of inequity aversion, intentions based reciprocity, conditional cooperation, human virtues, and social identity. Part III is on time discounting. It considers the evidence against the exponential discounted utility model and describes several behavioral models such as hyperbolic discounting, attribute based models and the reference time theory. Part IV describes the evidence on classical game theory and considers several models of behavioral game theory, including level-k and cognitive hierarchy models, quantal response equilibrium, and psychological game theory. Part V considers behavioral models of learning that include evolutionary game theory, classical models of learning, experience weighted attraction model, learning direction theory, and stochastic social dynamics. Part VI studies the role of emotions; among other topics it considers projection bias, temptation preferences, happiness economics, and interaction between emotions and cognition. Part VII considers bounded rationality. The three main topics considered are judgment heuristics and biases, mental accounting, and behavioral finance. Part VIII considers behavioral welfare economics; the main topics are soft paternalism, and choice-based measures of welfare. Finally, Part IX gives an abbreviated taster course in neuroeconomics.

Psychology And Law

Author: Amina A Memon
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780470850602
Size: 45.39 MB
Format: PDF
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Psychology and Law shows how psychological research and theory can be used in a legal context. Written with advanced undergraduate students in mind, it focuses upon the pre-trial or investigative phase of the legal process. Obtaining and assessing witness evidence is a key part of any criminal investigation. Topics include witness accuracy and credibility, covering issues such as assessment of witness credibility, interviewing suspects and witnesses, eyewitness testimony, false beliefs and memory, the role of experts and juries. This second edition has been revised and updated to reflect the large amount of new research in the area, making it the essential guide for all courses with a legal component. Comment on the first edition: "This is an excellent appraisal of the psychology of evidence...it provides thorough, substantial and up-to-date accounts of modern developments." Denniss Howitt, Loughborough University, UK * Written by well known and respected authors * Suitable as an introductory, undergraduate text

Investigative Interviewing

Author: Ray Bull
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 146149642X
Size: 40.67 MB
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This edited volume reviews the latest research on investigative interviewing in order to provide insights on the psychological processes of the person being interviewed as well as to offer guidelines for conducting credible and useful interviews. Critical and controversial areas are highlighted (eg. false confessions, child interviewing) in order to bring clarity to how these interrogations are to be conducted. Chapters focus on these areas to provide comprehensive views of theoretical, evidence-based background, as well as practical considerations of interrogation settings and procedures. The contributors are internationally respected scholars in the field of psychology and law with particular expertise in the interviews that are critical to legal proceedings. And attention is given to the criminal justice system in international perspective.

The Psychology Of False Confessions

Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119315689
Size: 43.83 MB
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Provides a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the development of the science behind the psychology of false confessions Four decades ago, little was known or understood about false confessions and the reasons behind them. So much has changed since then due in part to the diligent work done by Gisli H. Gudjonsson. This eye-opening book by the Icelandic/British clinical forensic psychologist, who in the mid 1970s had worked as detective in Reykjavik, offers a complete and current analysis of how the study of the psychology of false confessions came about, including the relevant theories and empirical/experimental evidence base. It also provides a reflective review of the gradual development of the science and how it can be applied to real life cases. Based on Gudjonsson’s personal account of the biggest murder investigations in Iceland’s history, as well as other landmark cases, The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice takes readers inside the minds of those who sit on both sides of the interrogation table to examine why confessions to crimes occur even when the confessor is innocent. Presented in three parts, the book covers how the science of studying false confessions emerged and grew to become a regular field of practice. It then goes deep into the investigation of the mid-1970s assumed murders of two men in Iceland and the people held responsible for them. It finishes with an in-depth psychological analysis of the confessions of the six people convicted. Written by an expert extensively involved in the development of the science and its application to real life cases Covers the most sensational murder cases in Iceland’s history Deep analysis of the ‘Reykjavik Confessions’ adds crucial evidence to understanding how and why coerced-internalized false confessions occur, and their detrimental and lasting effects on memory The Psychology of False Confessions: Forty Years of Science and Practice is an important source book for students, academics, criminologists, and clinical, forensic, and social psychologists and psychiatrists.

The Psychology Of Interrogations Confessions And Testimony

Author: Gisli H. Gudjonsson
Publisher: Wiley
ISBN: 9780471961772
Size: 63.87 MB
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Based upon scientific findings, using both a theoretical and practical approach, it provides excellent guidance regarding interrogation--its effects and implications. Presents full coverage of police interrogation methods and the processes by which false confessions are elicited plus demonstrates how they are more frequent than generally believed. Features a number of well-known contemporary cases including the ``Guildford Four'', ``Birmingham Six'' and ``Tottenham Three'' in which the author has been personally involved.

Handbook Of Psychology Of Investigative Interviewing

Author: Ray Bull
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470747609
Size: 80.13 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Investigative interviewing, and the information obtained from witnesses and victims, plays a vital role in criminal investigations. This comprehensive handbook explores current developments taking place in this rapidly developing field. An authoritative handbook created by prestigious editors and an international team of recognised authors International in its focus - the book assesses current developments taking place in several countries Takes a holistic approach to the process by including sections on eyewitness indentification and evaluating truthfulness

Nonverbal Communication

Author: Judith A. Hall
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN:
Size: 10.66 MB
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The current volume will emphasize uses, purposes, origins, and consequences of nonverbal communication in the lives of individuals, dyads, and groups-in other words, the behavior of human beings. As such, it will not emphasize communication systems per se nor the impact on humans of the physical environment, whether built or natural. With a field as widely represented as this one, full coverage within one volume is impossible. Therefore, the decision was made by the volume Editors to cover many different topics, the volume's unity will derive from its focus on the persons (or, in one chapter, non-human animals) engaging in nonverbal communication and the communicative and psychological aspects of this behavior. Nonverbal behavior is the more inclusive category and includes all emitted nonverbal behavior that may be subject to interpretation by others, whether the behavior is intentionally produced or not. In contrast, nonverbal communication refers to a subset of nonverbal behavior that represents a more active process whereby encoder (expressor) and decoder (recipient) emit and interpret behaviors according to a shared meaning code.