Crystallization And Growth Of Colloidal Nanocrystals

Author: Edson Roberto Leite
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781461413080
Size: 37.26 MB
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Since the size, shape, and microstructure of nanocrystalline materials strongly impact physical and chemical properties, the development of new synthetic routes to nanocrystals with controlled composition and morphology is a key objective of the nanomaterials community. This objective is dependent on control of the nucleation and growth mechanisms that occur during the synthetic process, which in turn requires a fundamental understanding of both classical nucleation and growth and non-classical growth processes in nanostructured materials. Recently, a novel growth process called Oriented Attachment (OA) was identified which appears to be a fundamental mechanism during the development of nanoscale materials. OA is a special case of aggregation that provides an important route by which nanocrystals grow, defects are formed, and unique—often symmetry-defying—crystal morphologies can be produced. This growth mechanism involves reversible self-assembly of primary nanocrystals followed by reorientation of the assembled nanoparticles to achieve structural accord at the particle-particle interface, the removal of adsorbates and solvent molecules, and, finally, the irreversible formation of chemical bonds to produce new single crystals, twins, and intergrowths. Crystallization and Growth of Colloidal Nanocrystals provides a current understanding of the mechanisms related to nucleation and growth for use in controlling nanocrystal morphology and physical-chemical properties, and is essential reading for any chemist or materials scientist with an interest in using nanocrystals as building blocks for larger structures. This book provides a compendium for the expert reader as well as an excellent introduction for advanced undergraduate and graduate students seeking a gateway into this dynamic area of research.

Cryosurgery

Author: Paola Pasquali
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3662439395
Size: 56.50 MB
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This book aims to fill the gap created by the lack of formal training in cryosurgery, which leads not only to an underutilization of the technique but also to inappropriate uses with unpleasant consequences for patients. The book covers all practical aspects of cryosurgery and also offers a theoretical foundation for practice. Basic principles, equipment, and techniques are described, and procedures are explained step by step for a range of applications, including common benign lesions, vascular lesions, premalignant conditions, and malignancies. An important feature is the coverage of the latest advances in combination treatments such as topical drugs and cryosurgery, ultrasound and cryosurgery, photography and cryosurgery, cryobiopsy, and immuno cryosurgery. Use of cryosurgery as palliative treatment is also discussed, and the closing chapters consider postoperative care, complications, and future directions.

One Dimensional Nanostructures

Author: Zhenyu Li
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642364276
Size: 31.14 MB
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One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is a comprehensive book depicting the electrospinning technique and related 1D unique electrospun nanofibers. The first part of the book focuses on electrospinning technique, with chapters describing Electrospinning setup, electrospinning theories, and related working parameter. The second part of the book describes in detail specific topics on how to control the electrospun fiber properties such as how to control the fiber direction, how to control the fiber surface morphology, how to control the fiber structure, and how to construct 3D structures by electrospun fibers. The final part of the book depicts the applications of the electrospun nanofibers, with sections describing in detail specific fields such as electrospun nanofiber reinforcement, filtration, electronic devices, lithium-ion batteries, fuel cells, biomedical field, and so on. One-Dimensional Nanostructures: Electrospinning Technique and Unique Nanofibers is designed to bring state-of-the-art on electrospinning together into a single book and will be valuable resource for scientists in the electrospinning field and other scientists involved in biomedical field, mechanical field, materials, and energy field. Dr. Zhenyu Li is an associate professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China. Currently, he also holds the position in Australian Future Fibres Research & Innovation Centre, Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria, Australia. Dr. Ce Wang is a professor at the Dept. of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun, P. R. China.

Metallic Butterfly Wing Scales

Author: Jiajun Gu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319125354
Size: 13.53 MB
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This book presents a method for replicating natural butterfly wing scales using a variety of metals for state-of-the-art applications requiring high surface-enhancement properties. During the past decade, three dimensional (3D) sub-micrometer structures have attracted considerable attention for optical applications. These 3D subwavelength metallic structures are, however, difficult to prepare. By contrast, the 3D superstructures of butterfly wing scales, with more than 175 000 morphologies, are efficiently engineered by nature. Natural butterfly wing scales feature 3D sub-micrometer structures that are superior to many human designs in terms of structural complexity, reproducibility, and cost. Such natural wealth offers a versatile chemical route via the replication of these structures into functional metals. A single versatile chemical route can be used to produce butterfly scales in seven different metals. These synthesized structures have the potential for catalytic (Au, Pt, Pd), thermal (Ag, Au, Cu), electrical (Au, Cu, Ag), magnetic (Co, Ni), and optical (Au, Ag, Cu) applications. Plasmon-active Au, Cu, Ag butterfly scales have exhibited excellent properties in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The Au scales as SERS substrates have ten times the analyte detection sensitivity and are one-tenth the cost of their human-designed commercial counterparts (KlariteTM). Preliminary mechanisms of these surface-enhancement phenomena are also reviewed.

Nanocrystals From Oriented Attachment For Energy Applications

Author: Weidong He
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319724320
Size: 44.34 MB
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This brief provides a comprehensive overview of contemporary research and materials technologies utilizing oriented-attachment nanocrystals (OA NCs) for the energy conversion devices. Starting with a historical introduction, the book presents basic theory with an emphasis on thermodynamic and kinetic models of the oriented-attachment nanocrystals growth. Further chapters review recent advances in the synthesis, characterization, and application of the oriented-attachment nanocrystals in fuel cells, batteries, supercapacitors, solar cells and photocatalysis. This book will appeal to researchers and scholars from a variety of disciplines including electrochemistry, materials science, chemical engineering, physics and mechanical engineering.

Lipid Nanoparticles Production Characterization And Stability

Author: Rohan Shah
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319107119
Size: 41.43 MB
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​What are lipid nanoparticles? How are they structured? How are they formed? What techniques are best to characterize them? How great is their potential as drug delivery systems? These questions and more are answered in this comprehensive and highly readable work on lipid nanoparticles. This work sets out to provide the reader with a clear and understandable understanding of the current practices in formulation, characterization and drug delivery of lipid nanoparticles. A comprehensive description of the current understanding of synthesis, characterization, stability optimization and drug incorporation of solid lipid nanoparticles is provided. Nanoparticles have attracted great interest over the past few decades with almost exponential growth in their research and application. Their small particle size and subsequent high surface area make them ideal in many uses, but particularly as drug carrier systems. Nanoparticles made from lipids are especially attractive because of their enhanced biocompatibility imparted by the lipid. The work provides a detailed description of the types of lipid nanoparticles available (e.g. SLN, NLC, LDC, PLN) and how they range from imperfect crystalline to amorphous in structure. Current thoughts on where drugs are situated (e.g. in the core, or at the interface) and how this can be manipulated are discussed. The many techniques for production, including the author’s own variant of microwave heating, are fully discussed. Techniques for measuring arguably the most important characteristics of particle size and polydispersity are discussed, along with techniques to measure crystallinity, shape and drug capacity. Finally, a full chapter on techniques for measuring stability, both in the absence and presence of drugs, is discussed, along with suggestions on how to optimize that stability. This work appeals to students of colloid science, practitioners of research into drug delivery and academics alike.

The Chemical History Of Color

Author: Mary Virginia Orna
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642326420
Size: 35.68 MB
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In this brief, Mary Virginia Orna details the history of color from the chemical point of view. Beginning with the first recorded uses of color and ending in the development of our modern chemical industry, this rich, yet concise exposition shows us how color pervades every aspect of our lives. Our consciousness, our perceptions, our useful appliances and tools, our playthings, our entertainment, our health, and our diagnostic apparatus – all involve color and are based in no small part on chemistry.

Techniques For Nanoencapsulation Of Food Ingredients

Author: C. Anandharamakrishnan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461493870
Size: 71.47 MB
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Nanoencapsulation has the potential to improve human health through its capacity to both protect bioactive compounds and release them at a specific time and location into various substances, including food. Numerous nanoencapsulation technologies have emerged in recent years, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. The goal of this Brief is to discuss the various nanoencapsulation technologies, such as emulsification, coacervation, inclusion encapsulation, anti-solvent precipitation, nanoprecipitation, freeze drying, and spray drying, including their limitations. Recent safety and regulatory issues concerning the various nanoencapsulation technologies will also be covered.

Classical Nucleation Theory In Multicomponent Systems

Author: Hanna Vehkamäki
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540312188
Size: 80.20 MB
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Nucleation is the initial step of every first-order phase transition, and most phase transitions encountered both in everyday life and industrial processes are of the first-order. Using an elegant classical theory based on thermodynamics and kinetics, this book provides a fully detailed picture of multi-component nucleation. As many of the issues concerning multi-component nucleation theory have been solved during the last 10-15 years, it also thoroughly integrates both fundamental theory with recent advances presented in the literature. Classical Nucleation Theory in Multicomponent Systems serves as a textbook for advanced thermodynamics courses, as well as an important reference for researchers in the field. The main topics covered are: the basic relevant thermodynamics and statistical physics; modelling a molecular cluster as a spherical liquid droplet; predicting the size and composition of the nucleating critical clusters; kinetic models for cluster growth and decay; calculating nucleation rates; and a full derivation and application of nucleation theorems that can be used to extract microscopic cluster properties from nucleation rate measurements. The assumptions and approximations needed to build the classical theory are described in detail, and the reasons why the theory fails in certain cases are explained. Relevant problems are presented at the end of each chapter.

Arrow Pushing In Inorganic Chemistry

Author: Abhik Ghosh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118924533
Size: 31.28 MB
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Involved as it is with 95% of the periodic table, inorganic chemistry is one of the foundational subjects of scientific study. Inorganic catalysts are used in crucial industrial processes and the field, to a significant extent, also forms the basis of nanotechnology. Unfortunately, the subject is not a popular one for undergraduates. This book aims to take a step to change this state of affairs by presenting a mechanistic, logical introduction to the subject. Organic teaching places heavy emphasis on reaction mechanisms - "arrow-pushing" - and the authors of this book have found that a mechanistic approach works just as well for elementary inorganic chemistry. As opposed to listening to formal lectures or learning the material by heart, by teaching students to recognize common inorganic species as electrophiles and nucleophiles, coupled with organic-style arrow-pushing, this book serves as a gentle and stimulating introduction to inorganic chemistry, providing students with the knowledge and opportunity to solve inorganic reaction mechanisms. • The first book to apply the arrow-pushing method to inorganic chemistry teaching • With the reaction mechanisms approach ("arrow-pushing"), students will no longer have to rely on memorization as a device for learning this subject, but will instead have a logical foundation for this area of study • Teaches students to recognize common inorganic species as electrophiles and nucleophiles, coupled with organic-style arrow-pushing • Provides a degree of integration with what students learn in organic chemistry, facilitating learning of this subject • Serves as an invaluable companion to any introductory inorganic chemistry textbook