Coherent Atomic Manipulation And Cooling

Author: Alexander J. Dunning
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319217380
Size: 46.42 MB
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This work unites the concepts of laser cooling and matter-wave interferometry to develop an interferometric laser cooling technique in an experimental system of cold rubidium atoms. Serving as an introduction to graduate level coherent optical atomic manipulation, the thesis describes the theory of stimulated Raman transitions and atom interferometry, along with the experimental methods for preparing and manipulating cold atoms, before building on these foundations to explore tailored optical pulse sequences and novel atomic cooling techniques. Interferometric cooling, originally proposed by Weitz and Hänsch in 2000, is based upon the coherent broadband laser pulses of Ramsey interferometry and in principle allows laser cooling of atomic and molecular species outside the scope of traditional Doppler laser cooling. On the path toward cooling, composite pulses – quantum error correction methods, developed by chemists to mitigate the effects of in homogeneities in NMR spectroscopy – are investigated with a view to improving the performance of atom interferometers.

Introduction To The Physics Of Waves

Author: Tim Freegarde
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521197570
Size: 54.57 MB
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Balancing concise mathematical analysis with real-world examples and practical applications, to provide a clear and approachable introduction to wave phenomena.

Optical Trapping And Manipulation Of Neutral Particles Using Lasers

Author: Arthur Ashkin
Publisher: World Scientific Publishing Company Incorporated
ISBN: 9789810240578
Size: 15.43 MB
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This important volume contains selected papers and extensive commentaries on laser trapping and manipulation of neutral particles using radiation pressure forces. Such techniques apply to a variety of small particles, such as atoms, molecules, macroscopic dielectric particles, living cells, and organelles within cells. These optical methods have had a revolutionary impact on the fields of atomic and molecular physics, biophysics, and many aspects of nanotechnology.In atomic physics, the trapping and cooling of atoms down to nanokelvins and even picokelvin temperatures are possible. These are the lowest temperatures in the universe. This made possible the first demonstration of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic and molecular vapors. Some of the applications are high precision atomic clocks, gyroscopes, the measurement of gravity, cryptology, atomic computers, cavity quantum electrodynamics and coherent atom lasers.A major application in biophysics is the study of the mechanical properties of the many types of motor molecules, mechanoenzymes, and other macromolecules responsible for the motion of organelles within cells and the locomotion of entire cells. Unique in vitro and in vivo assays study the driving forces, stepping motion, kinetics, and efficiency of these motors as they move along the cell's cytoskeleton. Positional and temporal resolutions have been achieved, making possible the study of RNA and DNA polymerases, as they undergo their various copying, backtracking, and error correcting functions on a single base pair basis.Many applications in nanotechnology involve particle and cell sorting, particle rotation, microfabrication of simple machines, microfluidics, and other micrometer devices. The number of applications continues to grow at a rapid rate.The author is the discoverer of optical trapping and optical tweezers. With his colleagues, he first demonstrated optical levitation, the trapping of atoms, and tweezer trapping and manipulation of living cells and biological particles.This is the only review volume covering the many fields of optical trapping and manipulation. The intention is to provide a selective guide to the literature and to teach how optical traps really work.

Laser Physics At The Limits

Author: Hartmut Figger
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662048973
Size: 60.60 MB
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Published on the occasion of Theodor Hänsch's 60th Birthday emphasis is placed on precision related to results in a variety of fields, such as atomic clocks, frequency standards, and the measurement of physical constants in atomic physics. Furthermore, illustrations and engineering applications of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics are widely covered. It has contributions by Nobel prize winners Norman F. Ramsey, Steven Chu, and Carl E. Wieman.

New Directions In Atomic Physics

Author: C.T. Whelan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306461811
Size: 30.13 MB
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The last few years have seen some remarkable advances in the understanding of atomic phenomena. It is now possible to isolate atomic systems in traps, measure in coincidence the fragments of collision processes, routinely produce, and study multicharged ions. One can look at bulk matter in such a way that the fundamental atomic character is clearly evident and work has begun to tease out the properties of anti matter. The papers in this book reflect many aspects of modem Atomic Physics. They correspond to the invited talks at a conference dedicated to the study of "New Directions in Atomic Physics," which took place in Magdalene College, Cambridge in July of 1998. The meeting was designed as a way of taking stock of what has been achieved and, it was hoped, as a means of stimulating new research in new areas, along new lines. Consequently, an effort was made to touch on as many directions as we could in the four days of the meeting. We included some talks which overviewed whole subfields, as well as quite a large number of research contributions. There is a unity to Physics and we tried to avoid any artificial division between theory and experiment. We had roughly the same number of talks from those who are primarily concerned with making measurements, and from those who spend their lives trying to develop the theory to describe the experiments.

Atom Chips

Author: Jakob Reichel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527643923
Size: 26.87 MB
Format: PDF
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This stimulating discussion of a rapidly developing field is divided into two parts. The first features tutorials in textbook style providing self-contained introductions to the various areas relevant to atom chip research. Part II contains research reviews that provide an integrated account of the current state in an active area of research where atom chips are employed, and explore possible routes of future progress. Depending on the subject, the length of the review and the relative weight of the 'review' and 'outlook' parts vary, since the authors include their own personal view and style in their accounts.

Physical Implementation Of Quantum Walks

Author: Kia Manouchehri
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642360149
Size: 69.73 MB
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Given the extensive application of random walks in virtually every science related discipline, we may be at the threshold of yet another problem solving paradigm with the advent of quantum walks. Over the past decade, quantum walks have been explored for their non-intuitive dynamics, which may hold the key to radically new quantum algorithms. This growing interest has been paralleled by a flurry of research into how one can implement quantum walks in laboratories. This book presents numerous proposals as well as actual experiments for such a physical realization, underpinned by a wide range of quantum, classical and hybrid technologies.

Atoms Molecules And Photons

Author: Wolfgang Demtröder
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642102981
Size: 23.74 MB
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This introduction to Atomic and Molecular Physics explains how our present model of atoms and molecules has been developed during the last two centuries by many experimental discoveries and from the theoretical side by the introduction of quantum physics to the adequate description of micro-particles. It illustrates the wave model of particles by many examples and shows the limits of classical description. The interaction of electromagnetic radiation with atoms and molecules and its potential for spectroscopy is outlined in more detail and in particular lasers as modern spectroscopic tools are discussed more thoroughly. Many examples and problems with solutions should induce the reader to an intense active cooperation.

Non Equilibrium Dynamics Of One Dimensional Bose Gases

Author: Tim Langen
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319185640
Size: 48.17 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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This work presents a series of experiments with ultracold one-dimensional Bose gases, which establish said gases as an ideal model system for exploring a wide range of non-equilibrium phenomena. With the help of newly developed tools, like full distributions functions and phase correlation functions, the book reveals the emergence of thermal-like transient states, the light-cone-like emergence of thermal correlations and the observation of generalized thermodynamic ensembles. This points to a natural emergence of classical statistical properties from the microscopic unitary quantum evolution, and lays the groundwork for a universal framework of non-equilibrium physics. The thesis investigates a central question that is highly contested in quantum physics: how and to which extent does an isolated quantum many-body system relax? This question arises in many diverse areas of physics, and many of the open problems appear at vastly different energy, time and length scales, ranging from high-energy physics and cosmology to condensed matter and quantum information. A key challenge in attempting to answer this question is the scarcity of quantum many-body systems that are both well isolated from the environment and accessible for experimental study.

Exploring The Quantum

Author: Serge Haroche
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198509146
Size: 36.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
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The quantum world obeys logic at odds with our common sense intuition. This weirdness is directly displayed in recent experiments juggling with isolated atoms and photons. They are reviewed in this book, combining theoretical insight and experimental description, and providing useful illustrations for learning and teaching of quantum mechanics.