Cognition And Instruction

Author: Sharon M. Carver
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135648999
Size: 46.96 MB
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This volume is based on papers presented at the 30th Carnegie Mellon Symposium on Cognition. This particular symposium was conceived in reference to the 1974 symposium entitled Cognition and Instruction. In the 25 years since that symposium, reciprocal relationships have been forged between psychology and education, research and practice, and laboratory and classroom learning contexts. Synergistic advances in theories, empirical findings, and instructional practice have been facilitated by the establishment of new interdisciplinary journals, teacher education courses, funding initiatives, and research institutes. So, with all of this activity, where is the field of cognition and instruction? How much progress has been made in 25 years? What remains to be done? This volume proposes and illustrates some exciting and challenging answers to these questions. Chapters in this volume describe advances and challenges in four areas, including development and instruction, teachers and instructional strategies, tools for learning from instruction, and social contexts of instruction and learning. Detailed analyses of tasks, subjects' knowledge and processes, and the changes in performance over time have led to new understanding of learners' representations, their use of multiple strategies, and the important role of metacognitive processes. New methods for assessing and tracking the development and elaboration of knowledge structures and processing strategies have yielded new conceptualizations of the process of change. Detailed cognitive analysis of expert teachers, as well as a direct focus on enhancing teachers' cognitive models of learners and use of effective instructional strategies, are other areas that have seen tremendous growth and refinement in the past 25 years. Similarly, the strong impact of curriculum materials and activities based on a thorough cognitive analysis of the task has been extended to the use of technological tools for learning, such as intelligent tutors and complex computer based instructional interfaces. Both the shift to conducting a significant portion of the cognition and instruction research in real classrooms and the increased collaboration between academics and educators have brought the role of the social context to center stage.

Mechanisms Of Cognitive Development

Author: James L. McClelland
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135706115
Size: 40.48 MB
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This volume considers how children's thinking evolves during development, with a focus on the role of experience in causing change. It brings together cutting-edge research by leaders in the psychology and neurobiology of child development to examine the processes by which children learn and those that make children ready and able to learn at particular points in development. Behavioral approaches include research on the "microgenesis" of cognitive change over short time periods (e.g., several hour-long sessions) in specific task situations. Research on cognitive change over longer time scales (months and years) is also presented, as well as research that uses computational modeling and dynamical systems approaches to understand learning and development. Neural approaches include the study of how neuronal activity and connectivity change during acquisition of cognitive skills in children and adults. Other investigations consider the possible emergence of cognitive abilities through the maturation of brain structures and the effects of experience on the organization of functions in the brain. Developmental anomalies, such as autism and attention deficit disorder are also examined as windows on normal development. Four questions drive the volume: *Why do cognitive abilities emerge when they do during development? *What are the sources of developmental and individual differences, and of developmental anomalies in learning? *What happens in the brain when people learn? *How can experiences be ordered and timed to optimize learning? The answers to these questions have strong implications for how we educate children and remediate deficits that have impeded the development of thinking abilities. These implications are explored in several chapters in the volume, as well as in the commentaries by leading discussants.

Building Object Categories In Developmental Time

Author: Lisa Gershkoff-Stowe
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135626243
Size: 66.45 MB
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The study of object category development is a central concern in the field of cognitive science. Researchers investigating visual and auditory perception, cognition, language acquisition, semantics, neuroscience, and modeling have begun to tackle a number of different but centrally related questions concerning the representations and processes that underlie categorization and its development. This book covers a broad range of current research topics in category development. Its aim is to understand the perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that underlie category formation and how they change in developmental time. The chapters in this book are organized around three interrelated themes: (1) the fundamental process by which infants recognize and remember objects and their properties, (2) the contribution of language in selecting relevant features for object categorization, and (3) the higher-level cognitive processes that guide the formation of semantic systems. The volume is appropriate for researchers, educators, and advanced graduate students.

Expertise And Skill Acquisition

Author: James J. Staszewski
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1135108803
Size: 17.13 MB
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The research on human expertise and complex skill acquisition that Wlliam G. Chase performed in the decade between publication of the classic chess studies he conducted with Herb Simon in 1973 and his untimely and tragic death has proven profoundly influential and enduring. Its impact spans disciplines that include Psychology, Computer Science, Education, Cognitive Neuroscience, Medicine, and Human Factors. It has contributed significantly to the emergence of Cognitive Engineering and has led to significant applications in the areas of training and instruction and knowledge-based "intelligent" computational systems. Its influence can be seen in current discussions of intelligence, heritability, intellectual potential, and achievement found in the contemporary popular press. The chapters in this volume document the enduring scientific contributions of William G. Chase to current knowledge and understanding of human expertise and skill acquisition and applications his work has supported. It will be of interest to those researching, studying, and working in the multiple fields that were greatly influenced by Chase's work.

Embodiment Ego Space And Action

Author: Roberta L. Klatzky
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1136678441
Size: 58.73 MB
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The majority of research on human perception and action examines sensors and effectors in relative isolation. What is less often considered in these research domains is that humans interact with a perceived world in which they themselves are part of the perceptual representation, as are the positions and actions (potential or ongoing) of other active beings. It is this self-in-world representation that we call embodiment. Increasingly, research demonstrates that embodiment is fundamental to both executing and understanding spatially and interpersonally directed action. It has been theorized to play a role in reaching and grasping, locomotion and navigation, infant imitation, spatial and social perspective taking, and neurological dysfunctions as diverse as phantom limb pain and autism. Few formal ideas have been put forward, however, to describe how selfrepresentation functions at a mechanistic level and what neural structures support those functions. This volume reports on the 2006 Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, which brought together the contributions to these issues from a group of researchers who span perspectives of behavioral science, neuroscience, developmental psychology and computation. Together they share their findings, ideas, aspirations, and concerns.

Cognition And Instruction

Author: David Klahr
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1317768671
Size: 43.18 MB
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First published in 1987. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

Knowledge And Cognition

Author: Lee W. Gregg
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 1134925050
Size: 56.54 MB
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First Published in 1974. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.

The Number Sense How The Mind Creates Mathematics

Author: Stanislas Dehaene
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199881057
Size: 37.24 MB
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The Number Sense is an enlightening exploration of the mathematical mind. Describing experiments that show that human infants have a rudimentary number sense, Stanislas Dehaene suggests that this sense is as basic as our perception of color, and that it is wired into the brain. Dehaene shows that it was the invention of symbolic systems of numerals that started us on the climb to higher mathematics. A fascinating look at the crossroads where numbers and neurons intersect, The Number Sense offers an intriguing tour of how the structure of the brain shapes our mathematical abilities, and how our mathematics opens up a window on the human mind.