Catalyst Deactivation 2001

Author: J.J. Spivey
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080528687
Size: 23.34 MB
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This proceedings contains the papers presented at the 9th International Symposium on Catalyst Deactivation, held in Lexington, KY, USA, on 7-10 October 2001.

Alkene Polymerization Reactions With Transition Metal Catalysts

Author: Yury Kissin
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080557991
Size: 22.25 MB
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During the past 30 years, the field of alkene polymerization over transition metal catalysts underwent several major changes: 1. The list of commercial heterogeneous Ziegler-Natta catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylene and stereoregular polyolefins was completely renewed affording an unprecedented degree of control over the polymer structure. 2. Research devoted to metallocene and other soluble transition-metal catalysis has vastly expanded and has shifted toward complexes of transition metals with multidentate ligands. 3. Recent developments in gel permeation chromatography, temperature-rising fractionation, and crystallization fractionation provided the first reliable information about differences between various active centers in transition-metal catalysts. 4. A rapid development of high-resolution 13C NMR spectroscopy resulted in greatly expanded understanding of the chemical and steric features of polyolefins and alkene copolymers. These developments require a new review of all aspects of alkene polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts. The first chapter in the book is an introductory text for researchers who are entering the field. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts, the types of catalysts, and commercially manufactured polyolefins. The next chapter addresses the principal issue of alkene polymerization catalysis: the existence of catalyst systems with single and multiple types of active centers. The subsequent chapters are devoted to chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental reaction steps, structures of catalyst precursors and reactions leading to the formation of active centers, kinetics of polymerization reactions, and their mechanisms. The book describes the latest commercial polymerization catalysts for the synthesis of polyethylenes and polypropylene The book provides a detailed description of the multi-center nature of commercial Ziegler-Natta catalysts. The book devotes specialized chapters to the most important aspects of transition metal polymerization catalysts: the reactions leading to the formation of active centers, the chemistry and stereochemistry of elemental polymerization steps, reaction kinetics, and the polymerization mechanism. The book contains an introductory chapter for researchers who are entering the field of polymerization catalysis. It describes the basic principles of polymerization reactions with transition-metal catalysts and the types of commercially manufactured polyolefins and copolymers The book contains over 2000 references, the most recent up to end of 2006.

Fluid Catalytic Cracking Vii

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080548517
Size: 56.32 MB
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Since 1987, the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has sponsored at 3 year intervals an international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology. This volume collects the recent progress of this technology as reported in the papers presented during the 232th National Meeting of the ACS in San Francisco, September 10-14, 2006. Sixty-six years after the introduction of the fluid cracking catalyst process, it remains the main process of gasoline generation for the estimated 237 millions cars on US roads. Catalysts testing and evaluation still remains a subject of interest, debate and controversy. Lambda sweep testing, testing of SOx, NOx and combustion promoters have been discussed in details together with catalyst evaluation for atmospheric residues and metal contaminated oils cracking. Of particular interest has been the introduction of novel concept in process design aimed at improving cracked product selectivity such as two-stage risers for better gasoline and olefins production and downer technology for high severity processes . The importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of crude oils, catalysts and reaction products are illustrated by several examples. Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation and personal overviews of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology are presented. * Presents findings from the tri-annual international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology, sponsored by the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) * Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation * Personal overviews by the authors of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology

Natural Gas Conversion Viii

Author: Fabio Bellot Noronha
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080497839
Size: 47.33 MB
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This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 8th Natural gas Conversion Symposium held in Natal-Brazil, May 27-31, 2007. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The manuscripts have been divided into eight different topics, Industrial Processes, Economics, Technology Demonstration and Commercial Activities;, Production of Hydrogen from Methane, Methanol, and Other Sources; Production of Synthesis; Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Hydrocarbons; From Synthesis Gas to; Catalytic Combustion; From Natural Gas to Chemicals; Light Hydrocarbons; and Production and Conversion. These are the most interesting subjects in the utilization of natural gas with recent scientific innovation and technological advances. The book is of interest to all students and researchers active in utilization of natural gas. * Research comes from the most important industries and research centres in the field * Features new studies from all around the world * Important for consulting and updating research and development data

Natural Gas Conversion Viii

Author: Fábio Bellot Noronha
Publisher: Elsevier Science
ISBN:
Size: 28.64 MB
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This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 8th Natural gas Conversion Symposium held in Natal-Brazil, May 27-31, 2007. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The manuscripts have been divided into eight different topics, Industrial Processes, Economics, Technology Demonstration and Commercial Activities;, Production of Hydrogen from Methane, Methanol, and Other Sources; Production of Synthesis; Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of Hydrocarbons; From Synthesis Gas to; Catalytic Combustion; From Natural Gas to Chemicals; Light Hydrocarbons; and Production and Conversion. These are the most interesting subjects in the utilization of natural gas with recent scientific innovation and technological advances. The book is of interest to all students and researchers active in utilization of natural gas. * Research comes from the most important industries and research centres in the field * Features new studies from all around the world * Important for consulting and updating research and development data

Zeolites For Cleaner Technologies

Author: Michel Guisnet
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 178326117X
Size: 56.73 MB
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This book, written and edited by leading authorities from academia and industrial groups, covers both preventive- and curative-zeolite-based technologies in the field of chemical processing. The opening chapter presents the state of the art in zeolite science. The two subsequent chapters summarize the chemistries involved in the processes and the constraints imposed on the catalyst/adsorbent. Three major areas are covered: oil refining, petrochemicals and fine chemicals. A chapter on the (curative) use of zeolites in pollution abatement completes this overview. In the area of oil refining, a general lecture sets the scene for present and future challenges. It is followed by in-depth case studies involving FCC, hydrocracking and light naphtha isomerization. Also, an entire chapter is devoted to the often-overlooked subject of base oils. In the area of petrochemicals, the processing of aromatics and olefins is described and special attention is paid to the synergy between catalysis and separation on molecular sieves. Contents:Introduction to Zeolite Science and Technology (M Guisnet & J-P Gilson)The Chemistry of Catalytic Processes (A Corma & A Martínez)Preparation of Zeolite Catalysts (T G Roberie et al.)Refining Processes: Setting the Scene (R H Jensen)Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking (E T Habib et al.)Hydrocracking (J A R Van Veen)C4-C6 Alkane Isomerisation (F Schmidt & E Köhler)Base Oil Production and Processing (M Daage)Para-Xylene ManufacturingCatalytic Reactions and Processes (F Alario & M Guisnet)Separation of Paraxylene by Adsorption (A Méthivier)Aromatic Alkylation: Towards Cleaner Processes (J S Beck et al.)Methanol to Olefins (MTO) and Beyond (P Barger)Zeolite Effects on Catalytic Transformations of Fine Chemicals (D E De Vos & P A Jacobs)Functionalization of Aromatics over Zeolite Catalysts (P Marion et al.)Zeolites and ‘Non-Zeolite’ Molecular Sieves in the Synthesis of Fragrances and Flavors (W F Hoelderich & M C Laufer)Pollution Abatment Using Zeolites: State of the Art and Further Needs (G Delahay & B Coq) Readership: Undergraduates, graduate students, academics and researchers in catalyst chemistry. Reviews:“Chapter authors have provided a teaching text that gives excellent introductory chapters to zeolites, and to the nature and significance of the processes that they can catalyse … This excellent book should be required reading for all scientists who have an interest in improving the environment.”Chemistry & Industry

Boron In Plant And Animal Nutrition

Author: Heiner E. Goldbach
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461506077
Size: 65.51 MB
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The Boron '97 meeting was a great success in summarising all recent developments in basic and applied research on boron's function, especially in plants. New techniques have since been developed and new insight has been gained into the role of boron in plant and animal metabolism. Nevertheless, there were still lots of open questions. The aim of the present workshop held in Bonn as a satellite meeting to the International Plant Nutrition Colloquium was thus to gather all actual information which has been gained since the Boron '97 meeting and to compile knowledge, both from animal and plant sciences. Furthermore, applied aspects had to be addressed too, as there is an increasing awareness of boron deficiencies even in crops such as wheat, which have formerly not been considered as responsive to boron application. Genetic differences in boron demand and efficiency within one species are a further important topic which has gained importance since the 1997 meeting. More in-depth knowledge on the mechanisms of boron efficiency are required as an increased efficiency will be one major possibility to maintain and improve crop yields for resource-poor farmers. Nevertheless, it has also clearly been shown that an adequate supply of boron is needed to obtain high yields of crops with a high quality, and that a sustainable agriculture has to provide an adequate boron supply to compensate for inevitable losses through leaching (especially in the humid tropics and temperate regions) and for the boron removal by the crop.

Carbon Fibers Filaments And Composites

Author: J.L. Figueiredo
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401568472
Size: 63.99 MB
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Conventional synthetic materials, like metals, ceramics or glass, are usually isotropic substances, and their suitability for structural applications is achieved by morphological design and combination in the macroscopic scale. However, in modem engineering this is often not acceptable. As an alternative, the use of non-homogeneous, anisotropic materials, with significant stiffness and strength only in the directions these mechanical properties are really needed, can lead to enormous material (and weight) savings. This is the case of multiphase systems called composite materials. In these composites, different material parts are added and arranged geometrically, under clearly designed and controlled conditions. Usually, a structure of fibers provides strength and stiffness and a matrix helds them together, whilst providing the geometric form. Carbon fibers are among the high-performance fibers employed in these advanced structural composites, which are profoundly changing many of today's high technology industries. New research and development challenges in this area include upgrading the manufacturing process of fibers and composites, in order to improve characteristics and reduce costs, and modifying the interfacial properties between fibers and matrix, to guarantee better mechanical properties. The interdisciplinary nature of this "new frontier" is obvious, involving chemistry, materials science, chemical and mechanical engineering. Other topics, which more often are treated separately, are also important for the understanding of the processes of fiber production. Carbon filaments is one such topic, as the study of their mechanisms of nucleation and growth is clearly quite relevant to the production of vapour-grown carbon fibers.

Catalytic Naphtha Reforming Revised And Expanded

Author: George J. Antos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0824757122
Size: 24.33 MB
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Catalytic Naphtha Reforming, Second Edition presents modern, crystal-clear explanations of every aspect of this critical process for generating high-octane reformate products for gasoline blending and production of benzene, toluene, and xylene (BTX) aromatics. The book details the chemistry of naphtha reforming, the preparation and characterization of catalysts, and the very latest commercial technologies and industrial applications. With more than 300 tables and figures, it addresses the development of new catalysts and revamp process improvements propelled by regulations on sulfur, benzene, and oxygenate content in gasoline and refinery pressure to maximize utilization of existing assets.

Predictive Modeling And Risk Assessment

Author: Rui Costa
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0387687769
Size: 75.34 MB
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The single most important task of food scientists and the food industry as a whole is to ensure the safety of foods supplied to consumers. Recent trends in global food production, distribution and preparation call for increased emphasis on hygienic practices at all levels and for increased research in food safety in order to ensure a safer global food supply. The ISEKI-Food book series is a collection of books where various aspects of food safety and environmental issues are introduced and reviewed by scientists specializing in the field. In all of the books a special emp- sis was placed on including case studies applicable to each specific topic. The books are intended for graduate students and senior level undergraduate students as well as professionals and researchers interested in food safety and environmental issues applicable to food safety. The idea and planning of the books originates from two working groups in the European thematic network “ISEKI-Food” an acronym for “Integrating Safety and Environmental Knowledge In to Food Studies”. Participants in the ISEKI-Food network come from 29 countries in Europe and most of the institutes and univer- ties involved with Food Science education at the university level are represented. Some international companies and non teaching institutions have also participated in the program. The ISEKI-Food network is coordinated by Professor Cristina Silva at The Catholic University of Portugal, College of Biotechnology (Escola) in Porto. The program has a web site at: http://www. esb. ucp. pt/iseki/.