Capillary Flows With Forming Interfaces

Author: Yulii D. Shikhmurzaev
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9781584887492
Size: 61.17 MB
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Capillary Flows with Forming Interfaces explores numerous theoretical problems that arise in the mathematical description of capillary flows. It focuses on developing a unified approach to a variety of seemingly very different capillary flows of practical importance where classical fluid mechanics leads to nonphysical results. The book begins with a review of the conceptual framework of fluid mechanics and then proceeds to analyze the roots of singularities, such as the moving contact-line problem and the capillary breakup problem. The author then examines how different singular flows can be described as particular cases of a general physical phenomenon of interface formation. He illustrates the developed mathematical models and experimentally verifies them through a number of example problems relevant to engineering applications. The conceptual framework provided in this reference enables further progress in developing mathematical models of capillary flows. The book also allows readers to make informed strategic choices regarding available numerical codes and the in-house development of these codes.

Singular Phenomena And Scaling In Mathematical Models

Author: Michael Griebel
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3319007866
Size: 49.88 MB
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The book integrates theoretical analysis, numerical simulation and modeling approaches for the treatment of singular phenomena. The projects covered focus on actual applied problems, and develop qualitatively new and mathematically challenging methods for various problems from the natural sciences. Ranging from stochastic and geometric analysis over nonlinear analysis and modelling to numerical analysis and scientific computation, the book is divided into the three sections: A) Scaling limits of diffusion processes and singular spaces, B) Multiple scales in mathematical models of materials science and biology and C) Numerics for multiscale models and singular phenomena. Each section addresses the key aspects of multiple scales and model hierarchies, singularities and degeneracies, and scaling laws and self-similarity.

Pore Scale Phenomena

Author: John Poate
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9814623075
Size: 74.65 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The field of pore scale phenomena is now emerging as one of the frontiers of science and many engineering disciplines. Transport phenomena in the subsurface of the earth play key roles in the energy and environmental domains. For example, the shale gas and oil boom is revolutionizing the world's energy portfolio. Pore scale phenomena from the nanoscale to mesoscale dominate the extraction of these resources. Similarly in the environmental domain, pore storage and pore-scale physics affect the availability of water resources and protecting its quality. Water flow and vapor transport in the pores near the land surface is critical to understanding soil water evaporation in the context of local and global hydrologic cycles affecting climate and climate change. Pore scale phenomena similarly play critical roles in the domain of materials science and biology. For example, many energy devices and membrane technologies are controlled by the physical and chemical properties of the pores. Identifying and analyzing the properties of these pores has emerged as a frontier of characterization science. This book provides, for the first time, a comprehensive overview of the fascinating interrelationship between engineering and science. The authors and contributors are recognized experts from the faculty of the Colorado School of Mines, Northwestern and Stanford. This book will appeal to earth and environmental scientists, materials scientists, physicists and chemists. Contents:Overview (J M Poate)Oil & Gas Reservoirs:Subsurface Pores: Physics of Flow in Petroleum Reservoirs (H Kazemi)Quantitative Nano and Microscale Rock Characterization (M Prasad, S Zargari and M Saidian)Impact of Surface Forces on Coupled Flow, Acoustic and Geomechanical Characteristics in Shale Reservoirs (A N Tutuncu)Microporosity Characterization of Mud-Rich Carbonate Rocks (T D Jobe and J F Sarg)New Frontiers: Hydrates in Porous Media (L E Zerpa and C A Koh)Pore-Scale Investigations of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (M Schindler and M L Batzle)Microfluidic and Nanofluidic Porous Media Analogs for Oil and Gas Applications (J T Ok, K B Neeves, W Xu and X Yin)Direct Numerical Simulation of Pore-Scale Fluid Flow and Transport (M S Newman, F Xiao and X Yin)Hydrogeology:From Pore to the Field: Upscaling Challenges and Opportunities in Hydrogeological and Land–Atmospheric Systems (T H Illangasekare, K M Smits, R Fučík and H Davarzani)Chemical Reactions in Diffusion-Limited Environments at the Pore-Scale (D A Benson)Porosity in Reactive Geochemical Systems (A Navarre-Sitchler, G Rother and J Kaszuba)Quantifying Hydrogeological Heterogeneity of Rocks using Core-Floods (R Pini and S Benson)Coarse-Grained Monte Carlo Simulation of the Distribution and Capillarity of Multiple Fluids in Porous Media (B D Zeidman, N Lu and D Wu)Coupled Thermo-Hydrological Processes in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (Y-S Wu, Y Xiong and H Kazemi)Materials Science, Energy, Devices & Biology:Preamble (R J Kee)Pore-Scale Phenomena and Challenges in Energy Research and Technology (R J Kee, H Zhu, G M Goldin and S A Barnett)Structural Characterization of Porous Materials (B P Gorman)Homogenization Approaches for the Elastic Properties of Porous Materials (J R Berger, S R Geer and W J Parnell)The Critical Role of Pore Characteristics on the Performance of Novel Membrane Processes for Water Treatment and Desalination (T Y Cath)Microporous Crystalline Membranes and Their Application for CO2 Separations (M A Carreon and T Q Gardner)Chemistry in Confined Pore Domains (M M Otting, Y Ji, R M Richards and B G Trewyn)Fluid and Solute Transport in the Interstitial Space of Blood Clots (A R Wufsus and K B Neeves) Readership: Book will appeal to industry, universities and national labs in areas of national importance. The book also will help to identify some of the knowledge gaps and areas where new research is needed. Keywords:Pore Scale Modelling;Fluid Transport;Nanopore Phase Behavior;Earth Sciences;Hydrology;Materials Science

Colloid And Interface Chemistry For Nanotechnology

Author: Peter Kralchevsky
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1466569069
Size: 31.54 MB
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Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006–2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), allowing the coordination of nationally funded research across Europe. With contributions by leading experts, this book covers a wide range of topics. Chapters are grouped into three sections: "Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization," "New Experimental Tools and Interpretation," and "Nanocolloidal Dispersions and Interfaces." The topics covered belong to six basic research areas: (1) The synthesis of nanostructured materials of well-defined size and function; (2) Analytical methods and tools for control and characterization of synthesized nanomaterials; (3) Self-assembly of nanomaterials, such as microemulsions and micelles, and their applications; (4) Bioinspired nanostructured materials—structure, properties, and applications; (5) Design of active, soft functional interfaces with unique properties for sensors, catalysts, and biomedical assays; and (6) Nanoscale elements in soft nanoscale devices for applications in analytical and biomedical sciences. This book describes highlights in nanotechnology based on state-of-the-art principles in colloid and interface science, demonstrating how great progress in the various branches of nanotechnology can be achieved. The application of these principles allows for the development of new experimental and theoretical tools.

Capillarity And Wetting Phenomena

Author: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780387005928
Size: 63.91 MB
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The study of capillarity is in the midst of a veritable explosion. Hence the temptation to write a new book, aiming at an audience of students. What is offered here is not a comprehensive review of the latest research but rather a compendium of principles. How does one turn a hydrophilic surface into one that is hydrophobic, and vice versa? We will describe a few solutions. Some rely on chemical treatments, such as coating a surface with a molecular layer. Others are based on physics, for instance by controlling the roughness of a surface. We will also examine the dynamics of wetting. Drops that spread spontaneously do so at a rate that slows down with time. They can be tricked into covering large areas by spreading them suddenly. We will describe a few of the many facets of their dynamical properties. Special additives are required for water to foam. Foams are desirable in a shampoo but can be a nightmare in a dishwasher detergent. Antifoam agents have been developed and are well known, but how do they work? It is also possible to generate bubbles and foams without special additives, for example in pure and viscous liquids such as glycerin, molten glass, and polymers. As we will see, the laws of draining and bursting then turn out to be quite different from the conventional ones. This book will enable the reader to understand in simple terms such questions that affect every day life -- questions that also come up during in industry. The aim is to view systems that often prove quite complex in a way that isolates a particular physical phenomenon, often avoiding descriptions requiring advanced numerical techniques will oftentimes in favor of qualitative arguments. This strategy may at times jeopardize scientific rigor, but it makes it possible to grasp things efficiently and to invent novel situations.

Micro Process Engineering

Author: Volker Hessel
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 3527315500
Size: 50.21 MB
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This three-volume handbook provides an overview of the key aspects of micro process engineering. Volume 1 covers the fundamentals, operations and catalysts, volume 2 examines devices, reactions and applications, with volume 3 rounding off the trilogy with system, process and plant engineering. Fluid dynamics, mixing, heat/mass transfer, purification and separation microstructured devices and microstructured reactors are explained in the first volume. Volume 2 segments microreactor design, fabrication and assembly, bulk and fine chemistry, polymerisation, fuel processing and functional materials into understandable parts. The final volume of the handbook addresses microreactor systems design and scale-up, sensing, analysis and control, chemical process engineering, economic and eco-efficiency analyses as well as microreactor plant case studies in one book. Together, this 3-volume handbook explains the science behind micro process engineering to the scale-up and their real life industrial applications.

Capillary Electrophoresis Of Proteins

Author: Tim Wehr
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780824702052
Size: 14.31 MB
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"Provides practical information on the application of capillary electrophoresis (CE) to protein analysis, with an emphasis on developing and optimizing CE techniques in the laboratory. Includes separation methods bases on mass, charge, isoelectric point, molecular sieving, and affinity interactions."

Handbook Of Crystal Growth

Author: Peter Rudolph
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0444633065
Size: 57.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries

Ion Exchange And Solvent Extraction

Author: Bruce A Moyer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482204363
Size: 18.84 MB
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Over the past several decades, the theme of supramolecular chemistry (SC) has permeated nearly all aspects of chemical endeavor. Not surprisingly, it has also pervaded the field of solvent extraction (SX), inspiring the framework for this volume of Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction. In addition, tools for studying aggregation have grown increasingly sophisticated, leading to a greater understanding of what we now recognize as SC phenomena in SX. Volume 21, Supramolecular Aspects of Solvent Extraction identifies how supramolecular behavior occurs and is studied in the context of SX and how SC is influencing the direction of SX. With contributions by internationally recognized specialists from different fields, this volume examines how principles of SC are being used in advancing the design of new highly selective SX systems and for understanding aggregation phenomena in SX systems. The book begins with a discussion of the nature and definition of SC and its general use in the design of novel SX reagents. Chapter 2 expands the subject of ion-pair recognition to introduce outer-sphere recognition of metal complexes. Chapter 3 reviews the literature on calixarenes as extraction reagents for metal ions. Chapter 4 extends the utility of this chemistry, describing the use of calixarenes for the extraction of biomolecules. Chapter 5 examines the liquid–liquid interface as an expression of supramolecular phenomena in SX, reviewing interfacial aggregation in model two-phase systems and metal extraction systems. The final chapter explores the problem of aggregation in SX, the historical attempts to understand it, and recent progress that has been made in addressing the issue.