Brown Not White

Author: Guadalupe San Miguel
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585444939
Size: 42.29 MB
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Strikes, boycotts, rallies, negotiations, and litigation marked the efforts of Mexican-origin community members to achieve educational opportunities and oppose discrimination in Houston schools in the early 1970s. The Houston Indendent School District sparked these responses when it circumvented a court order to desergregate by classifying Mexican American children as "white" and integrating them with African American children---leaving Anglosin segregated Schools. In Brown, Not White Guadalupe San Miguel, Jr., traces the evolution of the community's political activism in education during the Chicano movement era of the early 1970s. The political mobilization in Houston signaled a shift in the activist community's identity from the assimilationists "Mexican American Generation" to the rising Chicano movement. It also introduced Mexican American Interests into educational policy making and the national desegregation struggles. This important study will engage those interested in public school policy as well as scholarsof Mexican American history and the history of desegregation in America. "Brown, Not White contributes significantly to the history of the Chicano movement and school desegregation in the American West and is a must read forpublic school officials, community activits, and educators interested in seeking educationl equality for all groups, including Mexican Americans."---Western Historical Quarterly "San Miguel has written a fascinating and important account of the Chicano huelga in Houston, one that illustrates Chicano activism in parts of Texas other than the Rio Grande Valley. Accessible yet sophisticated, this book reads well and functions at numerous levels..."---Journal of Southern History

Chicana O Struggles For Education

Author: Guadalupe San Miguel
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 160344937X
Size: 21.79 MB
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Much of the history of Mexican American educational reform efforts has focused on campaigns to eliminate discrimination in public schools. However, as historian Guadalupe San Miguel demonstrates in Chicana/o Struggles for Education: Activisim in the Community, the story is much broader and more varied than that. While activists certainly challenged discrimination, they also worked for specific public school reforms and sought private schooling opportunities, utilizing new patterns of contestation and advocacy. In documenting and reviewing these additional strategies, San Miguel’s nuanced overview and analysis offers enhanced insight into the quest for equal educational opportunity to new generations of students. San Miguel addresses questions such as what factors led to change in the 1960s and in later years; who the individuals and organizations were that led the movements in this period and what motivated them to get involved; and what strategies were pursued, how they were chosen, and how successful they were. He argues that while Chicana/o activists continued to challenge school segregation in the 1960s as earlier generations had, they broadened their efforts to address new concerns such as school funding, testing, English-only curricula, the exclusion of undocumented immigrants, and school closings. They also advocated cultural pride and memory, inclusion of the Mexican American community in school governance, and opportunities to seek educational excellence in private religious, nationalist, and secular schools. The profusion of strategies has not erased patterns of de facto segregation and unequal academic achievement, San Miguel concludes, but it has played a key role in expanding educational opportunities. The actions he describes have expanded, extended, and diversified the historic struggle for Mexican American education.

Catholicism In The American West

Author: Roberto R. Treviño
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585446216
Size: 48.95 MB
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Like the rosary itself, the influence of Catholicism on the social and historical development of the American West has been both visible and hidden: visible in the effects of personal conviction on lives and communities; hidden in that the fuller context of this important American religious group has been largely marginalized or undervalued in traditional historiographic treatments of the region. This volume, an outgrowth of the 2004 Walter Prescott Webb Memorial Lectures, seeks to redress this imbalance. Editors Roberto R. Treviño and Richard Francaviglia have assembled here a variety of scholarly voices to present, according to the preface, "little-known stories about a religion whose traditions and adherents had until recently remained largely at the periphery of U.S. history narratives.” The result is a work that offers at once a fuller portrait of the Catholic experience in and impact on the American West, and also tantalizing glimpses that are highly suggestive of fruitful areas for further study. The contributors to Catholicism in the American West bring to light the variety, the hardships, and, ultimately, some of the triumphs of Catholicism in the American West. These studies are fine examples of the scholarship currently "reshaping how historians understand the role of Catholicism both in the development of the West and in the broader history of the nation.”

Rise Of Judicial Management In The U S District Court Southern District Of Texas 1955 2000

Author: Steven Harmon Wilson
Publisher: University of Georgia Press
ISBN: 9780820327280
Size: 23.12 MB
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This is the first book-length study of a federal district court to analyze the revolutionary changes in its mission, structure, policies, and procedures over the past four decades. As Steven Harmon Wilson chronicles the court's attempts to keep pace with an expanding, diversifying caseload, he situates those efforts within the social, cultural, and political expectations that have prompted the increase in judicial seats from four in 1955 to the current nineteen. Federal judges have progressed from being simply referees of legal disputes to managers of expanding courts, dockets, and staffs, says Wilson. The Southern District of Texas offers an especially instructive model by which to study this transformation. Not only does it contain a varied population of Hispanics, African Americans, and whites, but its jurisdiction includes an international border and some of the busiest seaports in the United States. Wilson identifies three areas of judicial management in which the shift has most clearly manifested itself. Through docket and case management judges have attempted to rationalize the flow of work through the litigation process. Lastly, and most controversially, judges have sought to bring "constitutionally flawed" institutions into compliance through "structural reform" rulings in areas such as housing, education, employment, and voting. Wilson draws on sources ranging from judicial biography and oral-history interviews to case files, published opinions, and administrative memoranda. Blending legal history with social science, this important new study ponders the changing meaning of federal judgeship as it shows how judicial management has both helped and hindered the resolution of legal conflicts and the protection of civil rights.

No Undocumented Child Left Behind

Author: Michael A. Olivas
Publisher: NYU Press
ISBN: 0814762468
Size: 78.15 MB
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The 1982 U. S. Supreme Court case of Plyler v. Doe, which made it possible for undocumented children to enroll in Texas public schools, was a watershed moment for immigrant rights in the United States. The Court struck down both a state statute denying funding for education to undocumented children and a municipal school district's attempt to charge an annual $1,000 tuition fee for each undocumented student to compensate for the lost state funding. Yet while this case has not returned to the Supreme Court, it is frequently contested at the state and local level. In No Undocumented Child Left Behind, Michael A. Olivas tells a fascinating history of the landmark case, examining how, 30 years later, Plyler v. Doe continues to suffer from implementation issues and requires additional litigation and vigilance to enforce the ruling. He takes a comprehensive look at the legal regime it established regarding the education of undocumented school children, moves up through its implementation, including direct and indirect attacks on it, and closes with the ongoing, highly charged debates over the Development, Relief, and Education for Minors (DREAM) Act, which aims to give conditional citizenship to undocumented college students who graduated from US high schools and have been in the country for at least five years. Listen to Michael Olivas on WYPF 88.1 FM, as he takes a look back 30 years to the Supreme Court case that made it possible for undocumented children to enroll in public schools and the highly-charged political and legal battles that have ensued.

Chicana Power

Author: Maylei Blackwell
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292726902
Size: 75.22 MB
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The first book-length study of women's involvement in the Chicano Movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, ¡Chicana Power! tells the powerful story of the emergence of Chicana feminism within student and community-based organizations throughout southern California and the Southwest. As Chicanos engaged in widespread protest in their struggle for social justice, civil rights, and self-determination, women in el movimiento became increasingly militant about the gap between the rhetoric of equality and the organizational culture that suppressed women's leadership and subjected women to chauvinism, discrimination, and sexual harassment. Based on rich oral histories and extensive archival research, Maylei Blackwell analyzes the struggles over gender and sexuality within the Chicano Movement and illustrates how those struggles produced new forms of racial consciousness, gender awareness, and political identities. ¡Chicana Power! provides a critical genealogy of pioneering Chicana activist and theorist Anna NietoGomez and the Hijas de Cuauhtémoc, one of the first Latina feminist organizations, who together with other Chicana activists forged an autonomous space for women's political participation and challenged the gendered confines of Chicano nationalism in the movement and in the formation of the field of Chicana studies. She uncovers the multifaceted vision of liberation that continues to reverberate today as contemporary activists, artists, and intellectuals, both grassroots and academic, struggle for, revise, and rework the political legacy of Chicana feminism.

Seeking Inalienable Rights

Author: Debra A. Reid
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781603441230
Size: 31.85 MB
Format: PDF
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Seeking Inalienable Rights demonstrates that the history of Texans’ quests to secure inalienable rights and expand government-protected civil rights has been one of stops and starts, successes and failures, progress and retrenchment. Inside This Book: "Early Organizing in the Search for Equality African American Conventions in Late Nineteenth-Century Texas"-Alwyn Barr, Texas Tech University "Crucial Decade for Texas Labor: Railway Union Struggles, 1886–1896"-George N. Green, University of Texas at Arlington "Racism and Sexism in Rural Texas: The Contested Nature of Progressive Rural Reform, 1870s–1910s" -Debra A. Reid, Eastern Illinois University "Fighting on the Home Front: The Rhetoric of Woman Suffrage in World War I"-James Seymour, Lone Star College, Cy Fair "Contrasts in Neglect: Progressive Municipal Reform in Dallas and San Antonio"-Patricia E. Gower, University of the Incarnate Word "Religious Moderates and Race: The Texas Christian Life Commission and the Call for Racial Reconciliation, 1954–1968"-David K. Chrisman, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor "Elusive Unity: African Americans, Mexican Americans, and Civil Rights in Houston"-Brian D. Behnken, Iowa State University "Chicanismo and the Flexible Fourteenth Amendment: 1960s Agitation and Litigation by Mexican American Youth in Texas"-Steven Harmon Wilson, Tulsa Community College This insightful discussion will appeal to those interested in African American, Hispanic, labor, and gender history.

Ethnicity In The Sunbelt

Author: Arnoldo De León
Publisher: Texas A&M University Press
ISBN: 9781585441495
Size: 58.27 MB
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A century after the first wave of Hispanic settlement in Houston, the city has come to be known as the “Hispanic mecca of Texas.” Arnoldo De León’s classic study of Hispanic Houston, now updated to cover recent developments and encompass a decade of additional scholarship, showcases the urban experience for Sunbelt Mexican Americans. De León focuses on the development of the barrios in Texas’ largest city from the 1920s to the present. Following the generational model, he explores issues of acculturation and identity formation across political and social eras. This contribution to community studies, urban history, and ethnic studies was originally published in 1989 by the Center for Mexican American Studies at the University of Houston. With the Center’s cooperation, it is now available again for a new generation of scholars.

Mexican Americans In Texas

Author: Arnoldo De Leon
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
ISBN:
Size: 69.30 MB
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This third edition of our ground-breaking publication, the first survey of Tejanos, has been completely updated to present a concise political, cultural, and social history of Mexican Americans in Texas from the Spanish colonial era to the present day, a time when people of Mexican descent are poised to become the demographic majority in the Lone Star. Writing specifically for the college-level student and careful to include a consensus of the latest literature in this strong and continually growing field, Professor De León portrays Tejanos as active subjects, not merely objects, in the ongoing Texas story. Complemented by a stunning photographic essay and a helpful glossary, and featuring new biographical vignettes that now introduce and set the context for each chapter, this third edition of our well-loved text is certain to be even more engaging and relevant to readers of all levels. And while the book targets a wide reading audience, it is ideally fit for classroom use. Professors teaching courses in Texas, western, and borderlands history will find it an ideal complement to their class lectures and other outside reading assignments. Of particular interest to students will be discussions describing the survival techniques Tejanos developed to withstand poverty and disadvantage, the process of assimilation over many generations, the changes engendered by the Chicano Movement of the 1960s, the role of political figures such as José Antonio Navarro, J. T. Canales, Alonso Perales, Héctor P. García, or Irma Rangel, or the impact of court cases like which Hernández v. Texas or Plyler v. Doe that changed the direction of Mexican American history.

The Church In The Barrio

Author: Roberto R. Treviño
Publisher: Univ of North Carolina Press
ISBN: 9780807877319
Size: 30.82 MB
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In a story that spans from the founding of immigrant parishes in the early twentieth century to the rise of the Chicano civil rights movement in the early 1970s, Roberto R. Trevino discusses how an intertwining of ethnic identity and Catholic faith equipped Mexican Americans in Houston to overcome adversity and find a place for themselves in the Bayou City. Houston's native-born and immigrant Mexicans alike found solidarity and sustenance in their Catholicism, a distinctive style that evolved from the blending of the religious sensibilities and practices of Spanish Christians and New World indigenous peoples. Employing church records, newspapers, family letters, mementos, and oral histories, Trevino reconstructs the history of several predominately Mexican American parishes in Houston. He explores Mexican American Catholic life from the most private and mundane, such as home altar worship and everyday speech and behavior, to the most public and dramatic, such as neighborhood processions and civil rights marches. He demonstrates how Mexican Americans' religious faith helped to mold and preserve their identity, structured family and community relationships as well as institutions, provided both spiritual and material sustenance, and girded their long quest for social justice.