Brain Immune System Signal Molecules In Protection From Aerobic And Anaerobic Infections

Author: Armen A. Galoyan
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 1461436672
Size: 33.85 MB
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Proline-rich polypeptides - in particular (PRP-1) galarmin and its structural analogues – are, when isolated from the neurosecretory granules of neurohypophysis of humans and animals, a new type of hypothalamic peptides. They work against aerobic, anaerobic, gram-positive, and gram-negative microorganisms in vivo, and do not have etiotropic properties. They are unique and capable substitutes to antibiotics, and, moreover, may be effective against strains, such as MRSA, that develop resistance to antibiotics. Galarmin, a component of the brain neuroendocrine system produced by the neurosecretory cells of hypothalamus, possesses immunomodulative, neuroprotective, antioxidant, antitumorigenic and hematopoietic properties. Moreover, galarmin and its structural analogues are powerful anti-inflammatory compounds. In addition to presenting a full overview of the neuroimmune system, it emphasizes the antibacterial, neuroprotective, and neuroregenerative properties of proline-rich polypeptides. It investigates the mechanism of galarmin’s action during different infectious processes, where it targets such dangerous pathogens as Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Methycillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. This research is important from both a theoretical and a clinical point of view, creating new prospects for the modern pharmaceutical industry and neuroendocrine, neuroimmunological sciences. Dr. Galoyan is a pioneer of the specialized field of neuroimmunology. During his 45-year long career, he has discovered a neuroendocrine immune system of the brain and identified a new type of brain cytokines: proline-rich polypeptides. The most important of these, PRP-1 (galarmin) has been shown to possess antibacterial properties and protect from certain neurotoxins.

Glial Neurobiology

Author: Alexei Verkhratsky
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 9780470513071
Size: 47.77 MB
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"This volume is a very valuable and much needed contribution." –Quarterly Review of Biology AT LAST - A comprehensive, accessible textbook on glial neurobiology! Glial cells are the most numerous cells in the human brain but for many years have attracted little scientific attention. Neurophysiologists concentrated their research efforts instead, on neurones and neuronal networks because it was thought that they were the key elements responsible for higher brain function. Recent advances, however, indicate this isn’t exactly the case. Not only are astroglial cells the stem elements from which neurones are born, but they also control the development, functional activity and death of neuronal circuits. These ground-breaking developments have revolutionized our understanding of the human brain and the complex interrelationship of glial and neuronal networks in health and disease. Features of this book: an accessible introduction to glial neurobiology including an overview of glial cell function and its active role in neural processes, brain function and nervous system pathology an exploration of all the major types of glial cells including: the astrocytes, oligodendrocytes and microglia of the ACNS and Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system; the book also presents a broad overview of glial receptors and ion channels an investigation into the role of glial cells in various types of brain diseases including stroke, neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Alexander's disease, brain oedema, multiple sclerosis and many more a wealth of illustrations, including unique images from the authors' own libraries of images, describing the main features of glial cells Written by two leading experts in the field, Glial Neurobiology provides a concise, authoritative introduction to glial physiology and pathology for undergraduate/postgraduate neuroscience, biomedical, medical, pharmacy, pharmacology, and neurology, neurosurgery and physiology students. It is also an invaluable resource for researchers in neuroscience, physiology, pharmacology and pharmaceutics.

The Benefits Of Natural Products For Neurodegenerative Diseases

Author: M. Mohamed Essa
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319283839
Size: 47.37 MB
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Focuses on the effects of natural products and their active components on brain function and neurodegenerative disease prevention. Phytochemicals such as alkaloids, terpenes, flavanoids, isoflavones, saponins etc are known to possess protective activity against many neurological diseases. The molecular mechanisms behind the curative effects rely mainly on the action of phytonutrients on distinct signaling pathways associated with protein folding and neuro-inflammation. The diverse array of bioactive nutrients present in these natural products plays a pivotal role in prevention and cure of various neurodegenerative diseases, disorders, or insults, such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, traumatic brain injury, and other neuronal dysfunctions. However, the use of these antioxidants in the management of neurodegenerative conditions has so far been not well understood. This is a comprehensive collection addressing the effects on the brain of natural products and edible items such as reservatrol, curcumin, gingerol, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and marine products.

Fermented Foods In Health And Disease Prevention

Author: Juana Frías
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128025492
Size: 35.76 MB
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Fermented Foods in Health and Disease Prevention is the first scientific reference that addresses the properties of fermented foods in nutrition by examining their underlying microbiology, the specific characteristics of a wide variety of fermented foods, and their effects in health and disease. The current awareness of the link between diet and health drives growth in the industry, opening new commercial opportunities. Coverage in the book includes the role of microorganisms that are involved in the fermentation of bioactive and potentially toxic compounds, their contribution to health-promoting properties, and the safety of traditional fermented foods. Authored by worldwide scientists and researchers, this book provides the food industry with new insights on the development of value-added fermented foods products, while also presenting nutritionists and dieticians with a useful resource to help them develop strategies to assist in the prevention of disease or to slow its onset and severity. Provides a comprehensive review on current findings in the functional properties and safety of traditional fermented foods and their impact on health and disease prevention Identifies bioactive microorganisms and components in traditional fermented food Includes focused key facts, helpful glossaries, and summary points for each chapter Presents food processors and product developers with opportunities for the development of fermented food products Helps readers develop strategies that will assist in preventing or slowing disease onset and severity

Neurotoxic Factors In Parkinson S Disease And Related Disorders

Author: Michael Storch
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780306465291
Size: 12.86 MB
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This text stems from the 2nd Parkinson's Disease Symposium on Neurotoxic Factors in Parkinson's Disease and Related Disorders, held on August 6-7, 1999 at the University of Ulm Medical School in Ulm at the Danube, Germany. The specific topic, neurotoxic factors in Parkinson's Disease, involves neurobiological, epidemiological and environmental factors that bring to light this second most common neurodegenerative disorder. This work is complied by leading researchers in neurodegeneration from around the world.

Brain Edema

Author: Jerome Badaut
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128031972
Size: 73.65 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Brain Edema: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Practice brings together the most widely recognized experts in experimental and clinical brain edema research to review the current knowledge gathered on the molecular and cellular pathophysiology and clinical management of brain edema. This timely book also discusses future directions of research and treatment. Brain edema is an integral and acutely life-threatening part of the pathophysiology of multiple cerebral and non-cerebral disorders, including traumatic brain injury, cerebral ischemia, brain tumors, cardiac arrest, altitude sickness and liver failure. Affecting millions worldwide, research over the past few years has shown that a plethora of complex molecular and cellular mechanisms contribute to this pathological accumulation of water in the brain parenchyma. In parallel, the development of new neuroimaging tools has provided a new way to examine how edema develops longitudinally and in real time, both in pre-clinical models and in patients. Despite intense research over the past few decades, therapeutic options are still limited and sometimes not effective. Presents a comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in edema formation and resolution Discusses the specific role of edema development in several pathologies, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, cardiac arrest, and liver failure Proposes a new classification of edema based on molecular processes Discusses clinical management of new clinical trials coming from pre-clinical studies Addresses the possible link between edema formation, other molecular and cellular processes, including inflammation and neuroinflammation

Japanese Kampo Medicines For The Treatment Of Common Diseases

Author: Somasundaram Arumugam
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 0128094443
Size: 15.21 MB
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Japanese Kampo Medicines for the Treatment of Common Diseases - Focus on Inflammation provides researchers and clinicians with a current look at how Kampo medicines can be used to effectively treat inflammatory disorders. Japanese Kampo medicines are a mixture of natural and herbal medicines that are available in Japan for the treatment of various diseases. Given their therapeutic potential, they are often prescribed instead of, or alongside, allopathic medicines. Kampo medicines are becoming more widespread and have proven effective for the treatment of a variety of inflammatory diseases, such as colitis, dermatitis, myocarditis, hepatitis, cardiomyopathy, and nephritis. This book offers background on Japanese Kampo medicines, along with a compilation of the published scientific data for several different types of Kampo medicines. It is an evidence-based guide for all those involved in, or interested in, the research and practice of Kampo medicine. Includes both preclinical and clinical data published from a variety of sources and compiled into one book Provides insight for researchers and clinicians on which Kampo medicines will provide the least side effects and offer the most effective therapy for a particular illness Offers important data that will help to inform future research and widen practice in this area

Microbial Endocrinology The Microbiota Gut Brain Axis In Health And Disease

Author: Mark Lyte
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1493908979
Size: 58.64 MB
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The field of microbial endocrinology is expressly devoted to understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiota (bacteria within the microbiome) interact with the host (“us”). This interaction is a two-way street and the driving force that governs these interactions are the neuroendocrine products of both the host and the microbiota. Chapters include neuroendocrine hormone-induced changes in gene expression and microbial endocrinology and probiotics. This is the first in a series of books dedicated to understanding how bi-directional communication between host and bacteria represents the cutting edge of translational medical research, and hopefully identifies new ways to understand the mechanisms that determine health and disease.​

Parkinson S Disease Second Edition

Author: Ronald F. Pfeiffer
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439807140
Size: 71.94 MB
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In recent years, considerable advances have been made in our knowledge and understanding of Parkinson's disease (PD). In particular, there has been an explosion of information regarding genetic contributions to the etiology of PD and an increased awareness of the importance of the non-motor features of the disease. Theories regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of PD have also been refined, and new treatment modalities and advances implemented. Reflecting these changes, this second edition features new chapters devoted to genetic aspects of PD, non-motor features of the disease, and aspects of the pathophysiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of PD.