Blindness And Brain Plasticity In Navigation And Object Perception

Author: John J. Rieser
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 113667893X
Size: 57.47 MB
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Research into the development of sensory structures in the brains of blind or visually-impaired individuals has opened a window into important ways in which the mind works. In these individuals, the part of the brain that is usually devoted to processing visual information is given over to increased processing of the touch and hearing sense. This demonstration of brain plasticity is of great importance to cognitive neuroscientists and cognitive psychologists, and has real implications for rehabilitation and education specialists who work with the visually impaired. This is an interdisciplinary book, featuring chapters from cognitive and developmental psychologists, neurologists and neuroscientists, and rehabilitation specialists and educators. All of these groups do research in this area but generally do not collaborate with one another. This book is an attempt to bring together the disparate threads of research into a single volume, appropriate for all three markets.

Multisensory Object Perception In The Primate Brain

Author: Marcus Johannes Naumer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9781441956156
Size: 53.78 MB
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It should come as no surprise to those interested in sensory processes that its research history is among the longest and richest of the many systematic efforts to understand how our bodies function. The continuing obsession with sensory systems is as much a re?ection of the fundamental need to understand how we experience the physical world as it is to understand how we become who we are based on those very experiences. The senses function as both portal and teacher, and their individual and collective properties have fascinated scientists and philosophers for millennia. In this context, the attention directed toward specifying their properties on a sense-by-sense basis that dominated sensory research in the 20th century seems a prelude to our current preoccupation with how they function in concert. Nevertheless, it was the concentrated effort on the operational principles of in- vidual senses that provided the depth of understanding necessary to inform current efforts to reveal how they act cooperatively. We know that the information provided by any individual sensory modality is not always veridical, but is subject to a myriad of modality-speci?c distortions. Thus, the brain’s ability to compare across the senses and to integrate the information they provide is not only a way to examine the accuracy of any individual sensory channel but also a way to enhance the collective information they make available to the brain.

Encyclopedia Of Perception

Author: E. Bruce Goldstein
Publisher: SAGE Publications
ISBN: 1506332730
Size: 44.35 MB
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The field of perception is devoted to explaining the operation of the senses and the experiences and behaviors resulting from stimulation of the senses. Perceptual processes such as recognizing faces, seeing color, hearing music, and feeling pain represent the actions of complex mechanisms, yet we usually do them easily. The Encyclopedia of Perception presents a comprehensive overview of the field of perception through authoritative essays written by leading researchers and theoreticians in psychology, the cognitive sciences, neuroscience, and medical disciplines. It presents two parallel and interacting approaches: the psychophysical, or determining the relationship between stimuli in the environment and perception, and the physiological, or locating the biological systems responsible for perception. Are there any processes not associated with perception? Surely there are, but the pervasiveness of perception is truly impressive, and the phenomena of perception and its mechanisms are what this encyclopedia is about. Key Features Contains 16 pages of color illustration and photography to accompany the entries Offers a varied and broad list of topics, including basic research as well as methodologies, theoretical approaches, and real-world applications of perceptual research Emphasizes human perception but includes ample research because of its importance in its own right and because of what this research tells us about human perception Written by recognized experts from many disciplines but for an audience with no previous background in perception—students and members of the general public alike Key Themes Action Attention Audition Chemical Senses Cognition and Perception Computers and Perception Consciousness Disorders of Perception Illusory Perceptions Individual Differences (Human) and Comparative (Across Species; Not Including Ageing, Disorders, and Perceptual Development) Methods Perceptual Development/Experience Philosophical Approaches Physiological Processes Sense Interaction Skin and Body Senses Theoretical Approaches Visual Perception

Assistive Technology For Blindness And Low Vision

Author: Roberto Manduchi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439871531
Size: 42.35 MB
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Assistive technology has made it feasible for individuals with a wide range of impairments to engage in many activities, such as education and employment, in ways not previously possible. The key factor is to create consumer-driven technologies that solve the problems by addressing the needs of persons with visual impairments. Assistive Technology for Blindness and Low Vision explores a broad range of technologies that are improving the lives of these individuals. Presenting the current state of the art, this book emphasizes what can be learned from past successful products, as well as what exciting new solutions the future holds. Written by world-class leaders in their field, the chapters cover the physiological bases of vision loss and the fundamentals of orientation, mobility, and information access for blind and low vision individuals. They discuss technology for multiple applications (mobility, wayfinding, information access, education, work, entertainment), including both established technology and cutting-edge research. The book also examines computer and digital media access and the scientific basis for the theory and practice of sensory substitution. This volume provides a holistic view of the elements to consider when designing assistive technology for persons with visual impairment, keeping in mind the need for a user-driven approach to successfully design products that are easy to use, well priced, and fill a specific need. Written for a broad audience, this book provides a comprehensive overview and in-depth descriptions of current technology for designers, engineers, practitioners, rehabilitation professionals, and all readers interested in the challenges and promises of creating successful assistive technology.

Perception And Its Modalities

Author: Dustin Stokes
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199381615
Size: 64.13 MB
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This volume is about the many ways we perceive. In nineteen new essays, philosophers and cognitive scientists explore the nature of the individual senses, how and what they tell us about the world, and how they interrelate. They consider how the senses extract perceptual content from receptoral information and what kinds of objects we perceive and whether multiple senses ever perceive a single event. Questions pertaining to how many senses we have, what makes one sense distinct from another, and whether and why distinguishing senses may be useful feature prominently. Contributors examine the extent to which the senses act in concert, rather than as discrete modalities, and whether this influence is epistemically pernicious, neutral, or beneficial. Many of the essays engage with the idea that it is unduly restrictive to think of perception as a collation of contents provided by individual sense modalities. Rather, contributors contend that to understand perception properly we need to build into our accounts the idea that the senses work together. In doing so, they aim to develop better paradigms for understanding the senses and thereby to move toward a better understanding of perception.

Foundations Of Low Vision

Author: Anne Lesley Corn
Publisher: American Foundation for the Blind
ISBN: 089128883X
Size: 38.74 MB
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Foundations of Low Vision: Clinical and Functional Perspectives, the ground-breaking text that highlighted the importance of focusing on the functional as well as the clinical implications of low vision, has been completely updated and expanded in this second edition. The revised edition goes even further in its presentation of how best to assess and support both children and adults with low vision and plan programs and services that optimize their functional vision and ability to lead productive and satisfying lives, based on individuals' actual abilities. Part 1, Personal and Professional Perspectives, provides the foundations of this approach, with chapters focused on the anatomy of the eye, medical causes of visual impairment, optics and low vision devices, and clinical low vision services, as well as psychological and social implications of low vision and the history of the field. Part 2 focuses on children and youths, providing detailed treatment of functional vision assessment, instruction, use of low vision devices, orientation and mobility, and assistive technology. Part 3 presents rehabilitation and employment issues for working-age adults and special considerations for older adults.

Touch And Blindness

Author: Morton A. Heller
Publisher: Psychology Press
ISBN: 0805847251
Size: 73.74 MB
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The area of touch and blindness has been of interest to psychologists and neuroscientists for as long as the fields have existed. This volume is derived from the talks presented by the invited speakers at a conference held in October of 2002 and brings together current research in the field.

Touch Representation And Blindness

Author: Morton A. Heller
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Size: 54.55 MB
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Psychological studies of touch and blindness have been fraught with controversy. Is it necessary to explain perception in terms of representation and inferential processes? In addition, psychologists differ in the relative importance they place on the modality of sensory stimulation for subsequent perceptual experiences. Thus, some psychologists argue that touch can do many of the things that are accomplished by vision, and claim that the mode of sensory stimulation is not critically important for perception. Others suggest that there are important consequences of a lack of visual experience, arguing for the importance of multiple forms of sensory input for conceptual development. A deep theoretical split divides researchers in these areas. Many researchers adopt a cognitive orientation, relate research on touch and blindness to higher order processes, such as memory and concept formation. Others adopt a theoretical perspective, explaining perception without recourse to concepts like mind. As part of the Debates in Psychology Series, this book clarifies the issues which divide the field of touch.