Biology Of Plagues

Author: Susan Scott
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139432306
Size: 13.28 MB
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The threat of unstoppable plagues, such as AIDS and Ebola, is always with us. In Europe, the most devastating plagues were those from the Black Death pandemic in the 1300s to the Great Plague of London in 1665. For the last 100 years, it has been accepted that Yersinia pestis, the infective agent of bubonic plague, was responsible for these epidemics. This book combines modern concepts of epidemiology and molecular biology with computer-modelling. Applying these to the analysis of historical epidemics, the authors show that they were not, in fact, outbreaks of bubonic plague. Biology of Plagues offers a completely new interdisciplinary interpretation of the plagues of Europe and establishes them within a geographical, historical and demographic framework. This fascinating detective work will be of interest to readers in the social and biological sciences, and lessons learnt will underline the implications of historical plagues for modern-day epidemiology.

The Black Death

Author: Joseph Patrick Byrne
Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group
ISBN: 9780313324925
Size: 61.72 MB
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An ideal introduction and guide to the greatest natural disaster to ever curse humanity, replete with illustrations, biographical sketches, and primary documents. Presents medieval and modern perspectives of this disturbing yet fascinating tragic historical episode.

Shaping The Nation

Author: Gerald Harriss
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199211197
Size: 53.14 MB
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The Black Death, the Peasants' Revolt, the Hundred Years War, the War of the Roses... A succession of dramatic social and political events reshaped England in the period 1360 to 1461. In his lucid and penetrating account of this formative period, Gerald Harriss illuminates a richly varied society, as chronicled in The Canterbury Tales, and examines its developing sense of national identity.

Encyclopedia Of Pestilence Pandemicss And Plaques Joseph P Byrne 2008

Author: Greenwood Press
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN:
Size: 67.30 MB
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This encyclopedia of infectious diseases in history grew out of a proposal for an encyclopedia of the Black Death that followed two volumes I wrote for Greenwood Press on the second plague pandemic. Greenwood’s editors were correct to suggest a much broader, interdisciplinary work, given that existing works on the history of epidemic disease tended to be either chronological or topical by disease, or topical by place. Given the opportunity, I engaged a truly first-rate editorial board of medical historians, M.D.s, a microbiologist, and medical history librarians. With their indispensable help, I crafted a list of entries that would take the nonspecialist advanced high school or college student from the basics of bacteria and viruses, through the intricacies of the human body and immunity to disease, to the major infectious diseases (and some others of growing relevance). Historical outbreaks constituted a second category of entries. We chose the major pandemics of plague, influenza, and cholera, of course, but we also included more tightly focused outbreaks that allowed for a closer analysis of the phenomena, their impacts, and the ways people dealt with them. A third major group of articles, we felt, needed to discuss the range of care-giving and treatments that developed independently of or in response to the great disease outbreaks. Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, hospitals, leprosaria, sanatoria, as well as sulfa drugs and antibiotics found their places in these pages. Related to these entries are those outlining major theories of disease and medicine that dictated cultural responses to epidemic disease. Desiring to be synthetic as well as specific in coverage, we decided to commission a series of longer entries on historical (and contemporary) factors that have affected the emergence and spread of epidemic diseases. Some of these are natural (air, water, the environment) but many are social, economic, and political: colonialism, war, poverty, urbanization, and the sexual revolution, for example. A final broad category covers effects or responses to disease, including media and artistic responses, international health organizations, and effects on personal liberties. We chose these categories and topics with a view to both the basics and to geographical and chronological diversity. We make no claims of completeness or comprehensiveness but do hope that we have provided a variety of materials that will stimulate and aid research, both informing and leading the reader to other fruitful sources. To aid internal searching, we have provided an alphabetical list of all entries in the front matter, as well as an index at the end of Volume 2. Each entry includes a list of related entries under “See also,” while terms with their own entries that appear in the text are boldfaced for easy identification. Arcing across the nearly 300 articles are certain themes that should serve a student well: colonialism, war, the development of Western medicine, the roles of migration and modern globalization, and the continuing plight and challenges of much of the underdeveloped world in the face of established and emerging diseases. We have chosen some of these themes and grouped relevant entries in the Guide to Related Topics that follows the List of Entries in the front matter. Entries have been written and edited for use by students with minimal backgrounds in biology, and a glossary of predominantly biomedical terms has been appended. Each entry has a list of suggested readings, and many have useful Websites. A broad bibliography of Websites, books, and articles appears at the end of Volume 2. In acknowledging my own debts to those who made this work possible, I would like to begin with the 101 authors from around the world who lent this project their time and expertise. The outstanding credentials of our editorial board members—Ann Carmichael, Katharine Donahue, John Parascandola, Christopher Ryland, and William Summers— are listed elsewhere, but let me assure the reader that without their contributions from conception to final editing, these volumes would have but a fraction of their merit. Each has gone well beyond any contractual obligations, each in his or her own ways, and any and all flaws are mine alone. Greenwood Press has provided me with a very helpful and supportive editor in Mariah Gumpert who has overseen this work from start to finish. I also wish to acknowledge the local efforts of Sarah Bennett, who developed the illustration program for the encyclopedia, Rebecca and Elizabeth Repasky who compiled the glossary and edited portions of the text, and Elizabeth Schriner who gathered many of the Website citations scattered about these pages. Finally, I wish to thank Belmont University, my home institution, for providing me with the academic leave and many of the means necessary to pull this project together Pandemics, epidemics, and infectious diseases have long been the deadliest challenges to human existence, greatly outstripping wars, accidents, and chronic diseases as a cause of mortality. They have filled history books and have been woven into the fabric of popular and religious culture: examples include the Pharaonic “plagues” of the Old Testament and the many later “plagues” of ancient Greece and Rome; the writings of Boccaccio, Machaut, and Petrarch about the Black Death; Daniel Defoe’s long-running 1722 best seller memorializing London’s 1665 plague epidemic, A Journal of the Plague Year; and the dying consumptive heroines of Dumas and Murger, widely read and then reimagined operatically in La Traviata and La Bohème. Much about infectious diseases has changed in the modern era, with the availability of vaccines, antimicrobial therapy and other interventions; however, much remains eerily familiar. We still face the unpredictable appearance of new diseases such as SARS, H5N1 avian influenza, and HIV/AIDS. We still read and see and listen to the plague artistry of earlier times, with the same morbid fascination, but we also find and cherish contemporary “plague art.” Popular histories about epidemics continue to become best sellers, such as John Barry’s The Great Influenza, about the 1918–1919 pandemic. Outbreak, a film about a deadly viral pandemic threat, has been seen by millions of people and remains popular more than a decade after its 1995 release. “Andromeda strain,” taken from the title of a 1969 book about a potentially world-ending pandemic, has even entered the standard English vocabulary. Although a deep-seated public fascination with plagues, pestilences, and pandemics is obvious, many encyclopedic works on the subject already sit on library shelves. Is there anything new to say in 2008 that has not already been said countless times before? I think the answer is a resounding Yes. Our understanding of infectious diseases has grown steadily in the past two decades, thanks in large part to the new tools of molecular biology. Much of this new knowledge is incorporated into the entries in this encyclopedia.

Black Death And Plague The Disease And Medical Thought Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide

Author: Samuel Kline Cohn
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199810907
Size: 37.43 MB
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This ebook is a selective guide designed to help scholars and students of Islamic studies find reliable sources of information by directing them to the best available scholarly materials in whatever form or format they appear from books, chapters, and journal articles to online archives, electronic data sets, and blogs. Written by a leading international authority on the subject, the ebook provides bibliographic information supported by direct recommendations about which sources to consult and editorial commentary to make it clear how the cited sources are interrelated related. This ebook is a static version of an article from Oxford Bibliographies Online: Renaissance and Reformation, a dynamic, continuously updated, online resource designed to provide authoritative guidance through scholarship and other materials relevant to the study of European history and culture between the 14th and 17th centuries. Oxford Bibliographies Online covers most subject disciplines within the social science and humanities, for more information visit www.oxfordbibliographies.com.

Communities And Crisis

Author: Shona Kelly Wray
Publisher: BRILL
ISBN: 9004176349
Size: 38.74 MB
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Bologna is well known for its powerful university and notariate of the thirteenth century, but the fourteenth-century city is less studied. This work redresses the imbalance in scholarship by examining social and economic life at mid-fourteenth century, particularly during the epidemic of plague, the Black Death of 1348. Arguing against medieval chroniclers' accounts of massive social, political, and religious breakdown, this examination of the immediate experience of the epidemic, based on notarial records--including over a thousand testaments--demonstrates resilience during the crisis. The notarial record reveals the activities and decisions of large numbers of individuals and families in the city and provides a reconstruction of the behavior of clergy, medical practitioners, government and neighborhood officials, and notaries during the epidemic.

Encyclopedia Of The Black Death

Author: Joseph P. Byrne Ph.D.
Publisher: ABC-CLIO
ISBN: 1598842544
Size: 73.23 MB
Format: PDF
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This encyclopedia provides 300 interdisciplinary, cross-referenced entries that document the effect of the plague on Western society across the four centuries of the second plague pandemic, balancing medical history and technical matters with historical, cultural, social, and political factors. • 300 A–Z interdisciplinary entries on medical matters and historical issues • Each entry includes up-to-date resources for further research

Hospitals And Healing From Antiquity To The Later Middle Ages

Author: Peregrine Horden
Publisher: Ashgate Publishing Company
ISBN:
Size: 49.28 MB
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Bringing together history and anthropology, from the time of Hippocrates to the eve of the Renaissance, this collection of influential articles covers what are still major topics of contemporary debate - the relation between family and institutions in poor relief and between magic, medicine and religion in healing.

Demography And Nutrition

Author: Susan Scott
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470777451
Size: 20.83 MB
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This exciting and important book covers the impact on demography of the nutrition of populations, offering the view that the change from the hunter-gatherer to an agricultural life-style had a major impact on human demography, which still has repercussions today. Demography and Nutrition takes an interdisciplinary approach, involving time-series analyses, mathematical modelling, aggregative analysis and family reconstitution as well as analysis of data series from Third World countries in the 20th Century. Contents include details and analysis of mortality oscillations, food supplies, famines, fertility and pregnancy, infancy and infant mortality, ageing, infectious diseases, and population dynamics. The authors, both well known internationally for their work in these areas, have a great deal of experience of population data gathering and analysis. Within the book, they develop the thesis that malnutrition, from which the bulk of the population suffered, was the major factor that regulated demography in historical times, its controlling effect operated via the mother before, during and after pregnancy. Demography and Nutrition contains a vast wealth of fascinating and vital information and as such is essential reading for a wide range of health professionals including nutritionists, dietitians, public health and community workers. Historians, social scientists, geographers and all those involved in work on demography will find this book to be of great use and interest. Libraries in all university departments, medical schools and research establishments should have copies of this landmark publication available on their shelves.