Biofuel Cropping Systems

Author: Hans Langeveld
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134624778
Size: 74.96 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 3920
Choosing appropriate practices and policies for biofuel production requires an understanding of how soils, climate, farm types, infrastructure, markets and social organisation affect the establishment and performance of these crops. The book highlights land use dynamics, cultivation practices related to conversion and wider impacts. It explores how biofuel production chain development is steered by emerging technologies and management practices and how both can be influenced by effective policies designed to encourage sustainable biofuel production. The book highlights major biofuel production chains including: cane cultivation in Brazil corn ethanol in the USA wheat and rapeseed in Europe oil palm in the Far East cane in Asia and Africa SRC and other lignocellulosic crops. In each case the development, cropping systems and impacts are discussed, system dynamics are shown and lessons drawn for the way things could or should change. Biofuel Cropping Systems is a vital resource for all those who want to understand the way biofuels are produced and how they impact other elements of society and especially how improvements can be made. It is a handbook for students, biofuel producers, researchers and policymakers in energy and agriculture.

Bioenergy Crops For Ecosystem Health And Sustainability

Author: Alex Baumber
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317559002
Size: 11.74 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
View: 3060
The growing of crops for bioenergy has been subject to much recent criticism, as taking away land which could be used for food production or biodiversity conservation. This book challenges some commonly-held ideas about biofuels, bioenergy and energy cropping, particularly that energy crops pose an inherent threat to ecosystems, which must be mitigated. The book recognises that certain energy crops (e.g. oil palm for biodiesel) have generated sustainability concerns, but also asks the question "is there a better way?" of using energy crops to strategically enhance ecosystem functions. It draws on numerous case studies, including where energy crops have had negative outcomes as well as well as cases where energy crops have produced benefits for ecosystem health, such as soil and water protection from the cropping of willow and poplar in Europe and the use of mallee eucalypts to fight salinity in Western Australia. While exploring this central argument, the volume also provides a systematic overview of the socio-economic sustainability issues surrounding bioenergy.

Biofuel Crop Sustainability

Author: Bharat Singh
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118635647
Size: 57.56 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 5733
Biofuel Crop Sustainability brings together the basic principles of agricultural sustainability and special stipulations for biofuels, from the economic and ecological opportunities and challenges of sustainable biofuel crop production to the unique characteristics of particular crops which make them ideal for biofuel applications. This book will be a valuable resource for researchers and professionals involved in biofuels development and production as well as agriculture industry personnel. Chapters focus the broad principles of resource management for ecological, environmental and societal welfare, the sustainability issues pertaining to several broad categories of biofuel crops , as well as the economics and profitability of biofuels on both a local and international scale. Coverage includes topics such as utilizing waste water for field crop irrigation and algae production, reliability of feedstock supply, marginal lands, and identifying crops with traits of significance for survival and growth on low fertility soils. The development of production practices with low external inputs of fertilizer, irrigation, and pesticides is also covered. Biofuel Crop Sustainability will be a valuable, up-to-date reference for all those involved in the rapidly expanding biofuels industry and sustainable agriculture research fields.

Future Bioenergy And Sustainable Land Use

Author: German Advisory Council on Global Change
Publisher: Earthscan
ISBN: 1849774501
Size: 46.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 1484
Because of the major opportunities and risks associated with it, and the complexity of the subject, bioenergy policy has in a short time become a challenging political task for regulators and planners - a task that can only be accomplished through worldwide cooperation and the creation of an international framework. This book's central message is that the sustainable potential of bioenergy, which can be tapped all over the world, should be utilized - provided that threats to sustainability are avoided. In particular, the use of bioenergy must not endanger food security or the goals of nature conservation and climate change mitigation.

Bioenergy And Land Use Change

Author: Zhangcai Qin
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1119297354
Size: 23.61 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
View: 4505
Although bioenergy is a renewable energy source, it is not without impact on the environment. Both the cultivation of crops specifically for use as biofuels and the use of agricultural byproducts to generate energy changes the landscape, affects ecosystems, and impacts the climate. Bioenergy and Land Use Change focuses on regional and global assessments of land use change related to bioenergy and the environmental impacts. This interdisciplinary volume provides both high level reviews and in-depth analyses on specific topics. Volume highlights include: Land use change concepts, economics, and modeling Relationships between bioenergy and land use change Impacts on soil carbon, soil health, water quality, and the hydrologic cycle Impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services Effects of bioenergy on direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions Biogeochemical and biogeophysical climate regulation Uncertainties and challenges associated with land use change quantification and environmental impact assessments Bioenergy and Land Use Change is a valuable resource for professionals, researchers, and graduate students from a wide variety of fields including energy, economics, ecology, geography, agricultural science, geoscience, and environmental science. Read an interview with the editors to find out more:

Efficiency And Sustainability In Biofuel Production

Author: Barnabas Gikonyo
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1498728863
Size: 44.63 MB
Format: PDF
View: 5541
The world's interest in reducing petroleum use has led to the rapid development of the biofuel industry over the past decade or so. However, there is increasing concern over how current food-based biofuels affect both food security and the environment. Second-generation biofuels, however, use widely available sources such as non-food lignocellulosic-based biomass and fats, oils, and greases. They make practical consideration of how land use can simultaneously support both the world's food needs and some of its energy needs. This volume consolidates some of the most recent investigations into these issues. The chapters focus on these categories of research: The problems currently connected with biofuels relating to land use and the environment Investigations into the potential for land use to be managed more effectively and sustainably Research that focuses on new and developing options for second-generation biofuels This volume is recommended for all biofuel researchers, from the PhD student to the experienced scientist. It also offers an essential foundation to anyone interested in how biofuels relate to the future of our world.

Evaluating Agricultural Land Use Patterns In Relation To Food Systems Bioenergy And Carbon Mitigation

Author: Ethan Davis
Size: 26.84 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
View: 7031
The first part of this thesis examined land requirements for enhanced food security and large-scale cellulosic bioenergy production. The second part of this thesis investigated the carbon mitigation of bioenergy relative to forest or grassland sequestration and alternative transportation energy carriers. Essentially, this thesis asks--is there enough existing agricultural land to supply both food and bioenergy land demand, and if so, what is the relative merit of pursuing bioenergy as a carbon mitigation strategy? Global and U.S. agricultural land use patterns were examined in terms of food consumption, crop or livestock productivity, or waste. In the U.S., we found healthier diets and reducing waste in the food supply system could spare 8.6 to 64 million hectares (Mha). This land could be used for bioenergy without conflicting with food security. Globally, future population increases and reducing food insecurity will require significantly more food. The type of diet, and in particular ruminant meat and dairy consumption, have a key impact on land usehowever, even low levels of meat consumption could lead to significant expansion of agricultural land at higher rates of crop productivity. Future rates of crop productivity are expected to continue to increase but at a slower rate due to climate change and other factors. Globally, we found that regardless of increases in yield or dietary scenarios, when future population growth is considered, currently existing supplies of agricultural land are quickly outstripped, likely leading to large scale deforestation or habitat destruction. This result contradicts previously published reports purporting a surplus of landa key shortcoming of this previous work is that pasture land demand for ruminants was not considered, and, researchers implicitly assumed all pasture land is suitable for bioenergy (SCOPE 2015). A detailed examination using two models of crop suitability showed most pasture is not capable of supporting unirrigated food or bioenergy crops. Thus, if we only consider future demand for cropland for food and bioenergy, and this demand is low, then there is enough suitable pasture land to divert to crop production; but if either food or bioenergy land demand is moderate or high, then there is an insufficient supply of existing agricultural land and deforestation or grassland habitat destruction is likely to occur. These results only considered projected increases in cropland and not pasture. If future demand for both cropland and pasture is considered for food production, then there is no spare existing agricultural land for bioenergy. In part two, this thesis then examined the carbon mitigation of bioenergy to forest or grassland sequestration on the land spared in the U.S. due to a shift in diet or reduction of waste. We found current bioenergy has much greater carbon benefits than grasslands. Current bioenergy offers less or equivalent carbon reductions as forest sequestration, but theoretical future bioenergy has greater carbon reduction than forest sequestration. In relation to other energy carriers (electricity, hydrogen, etc.), we found bioenergy could be a low carbon source of energy, and could offer deep emission reductions if emissions from land use change (deforestation) can be avoided. If land use change is not avoided, then future biofuels do not reduce emissions as much as future electric vehicles or fuel cells. If land use change is avoided then carbon reductions of biofuels are equivalent or higher than electric vehicles or fuel cells. Given the results from part one of this thesis, unless there is a fundamental shift away from beef consumption, or, a halting to population growth, additional land demand from large-scale bioenergy will cause land use change and release carbon stores. However, there are alternatives to shifting land from food to bioenergy--riparian corridors could be planted in perennial bioenergy crops to reduce eutrophication; urban environments along interstates, rail, and powerlines could supply biomass; novel crop rotations that used bioenergy crops in extended fallows, or hay-bioenergy, could supply biomass while maintaining food production; perennial strips could be intercropped to control erosion; or biomass could rehabilitate brownfields, marginal or degraded land. Use of these alternative types of land would likely limit biomass supplies and reduce bioenergy supplyperhaps to fuel heavy duty vehicles, shipping, or aviation. This thesis shows there is real and considerable risk of bioenergy conflicting with food security for land, but this conflict, while very challenging, is not inevitable, and if currently managed lands can supply bioenergy, then reconciling enhanced food security and developing low carbon fuels is theoretically possible.

Biofuels Land Grabbing And Food Security In Africa

Author: Prosper B. Matondi
Publisher: Zed Books Ltd.
ISBN: 1848138814
Size: 34.21 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 3453
The issue of biofuels has already been much debated, but the focus to date has largely been on Latin America and deforestation - this highly original work breaks fresh ground in looking at the African perspective. Most African governments see biofuels as having the potential to increase agricultural productivity and export incomes and thus strengthen their national economies, improving energy balances and rural employment. At the same time climate change may be addressed through reduction of green house gas emissions. There are, however, a number of uncertainties mounting that challenge this scenario. Using cutting-edge empirical case studies, this knowledge gap is addressed in a variety of chapters examining the effects of large-scale biofuel production on African agriculture. In particular, 'land grabbing' and food security issues are scrutinised, both of which have become vital topics in regard to the environmental and developmental governance of African countries. A revealing book for anyone wishing to understand the startling impact of biofuels and land grabbing on Africa.

Carbon Footprints And Food Systems

Author: Paul Brenton
Publisher: World Bank Publications
ISBN: 0821385445
Size: 31.42 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
View: 5405
This report addresses carbon labeling schemes, a high-profile issue and one that has important economic implications for developing countries. Carbon accounting and labeling instruments are designed to present information on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from supply chains. These instruments have become an important awareness-raising channel for governments, producers, retailers and consumers to bring about the reduction of GHGs. At the same time, they have emerged as a crucial element of supply chain management, trade logistics and, potentially, trade regulations between countries. But the underlying science of GHG emissions is only partially developed. Many of these schemes are based on rudimentary knowledge of GHG emissions and have mainly been designed by industrialized countries. There is a concern that these systems do not accurately reflect production processes in developing countries, and that they may even shift consumer preferences away from developing country exports. The report includes an analysis of current and emerging carbon labeling schemes and an assessment of available data, emissions factors and knowledge gaps of carbon footprinting methodologies. The report also analyzes carbon accounting methodologies for sugar and pineapple products from Zambia and Mauritius according to PAS 2050 guidelines, to illustrate whether these schemes accurately represent the production systems in developing countries. The report concludes with a series of recommendations on how carbon footprint labeling can be made more development-friendly

The Global Carbon Cycle

Author: Christopher B Field
Publisher: Island Press
Size: 48.63 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 704
Throughout, contributors emphasize that all parts of the carbon cycle are interrelated, and only by developing a framework that considers the full set of feedbacks will we be able to achieve a thorough understanding and develop effective management strategies.