Beyond Einstein

Author: Michio Kaku
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780192861962
Size: 20.98 MB
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What is superstring theory and why is it important? Can superstrings offer the fulfilment of Einstein's lifelong dream of a Theory of Everything? Co-authored by Michio Kaku, one of the leading pioneers of superstrings, this is a thrilling account of the discoveries that have led scientists to the brightest new prospect in theoretical physics today. With all the excitement of a detective story, this book contains the newest ground-breaking research in physics, and offers a fascinating lookat the scientific research that may make the impossible possible.

Reinventing Gravity

Author: John W. Moffat
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061982180
Size: 21.29 MB
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Einstein's gravity theory—his general theory of relativity—has served as the basis for a series of astonishing cosmological discoveries. But what if, nonetheless, Einstein got it wrong? Since the 1930s, physicists have noticed an alarming discrepancy between the universe as we see it and the universe that Einstein's theory of relativity predicts. There just doesn't seem to be enough stuff out there for everything to hang together. Galaxies spin so fast that, based on the amount of visible matter in them, they ought to be flung to pieces, the same way a spinning yo-yo can break its string. Cosmologists tried to solve the problem by positing dark matter—a mysterious, invisible substance that surrounds galaxies, holding the visible matter in place—and particle physicists, attempting to identify the nature of the stuff, have undertaken a slew of experiments to detect it. So far, none have. Now, John W. Moffat, a physicist at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Canada, offers a different solution to the problem. The cap­stone to a storybook career—one that began with a correspondence with Einstein and a conversation with Niels Bohr—Moffat's modified gravity theory, or MOG, can model the movements of the universe without recourse to dark matter, and his work chal­lenging the constancy of the speed of light raises a stark challenge to the usual models of the first half-million years of the universe's existence. This bold new work, presenting the entirety of Moffat's hypothesis to a general readership for the first time, promises to overturn everything we thought we knew about the origins and evolution of the universe.

Beyond Einstein

Author: Lenard Metzger
Publisher: Lulu.com
ISBN: 143571461X
Size: 60.89 MB
Format: PDF
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The author points out what he considers to be some erroneous assumptions in Einstein's theories of relativity. This allowed going beyond these theories in the development of a non-relativistic, unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism. What causes gravity and establishes the speed of light is described. The possibility of faster than light travel is discussed. Included are new ideas about the structure of atoms, the emission of photons and the interaction of gravity with atoms and photons. Also presented is the part played by gravity in the formation of black holes, the Big Bang, the expanding Universe and dark matter. A structure of the Cosmos is described that could lead to future Big Bangs.

Beyond Einstein Gravity

Author: Salvatore Capozziello
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9789400701656
Size: 68.82 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Beyond Einstein’s Gravity is a graduate level introduction to extended theories of gravity and cosmology, including variational principles, the weak-field limit, gravitational waves, mathematical tools, exact solutions, as well as cosmological and astrophysical applications. The book provides a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature using a consistent notation. Although the results apply in principle to all alternative gravities, a special emphasis is on scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. They were studied by theoretical physicists from early on, and in the 1980s they appeared in attempts to renormalize General Relativity and in models of the early universe. Recently, these theories have seen a new lease of life, in both their metric and metric-affine versions, as models of the present acceleration of the universe without introducing the mysterious and exotic dark energy. The dark matter problem can also be addressed in extended gravity. These applications are contributing to a deeper understanding of the gravitational interaction from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. An extensive bibliography guides the reader into more detailed literature on particular topics.

Nasa S Beyond Einstein Program

Author: Committee on NASA's Einstein Program: An Architecture for Implementation
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309111625
Size: 15.14 MB
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The Beyond Einstein (BE) program is a set of five space missions designed to address important questions about physics and astrophysics. In 2003, NASA prepared a research roadmap proposing these five missions in order to study dark energy, black holes, gravitational radiation, inflation of the early universe, and Einstein’s theory of gravitation. In FY2007, congressional language prompted NASA and DOE to request the NRC to assess these missions and recommend which to develop and launch first using a funding wedge that will start in 2009. This report provides, for each mission, an analysis of its scientific impact, an examination of technical risk and a cost assessment, and a review of related policy and programmatic issues. The report concludes with recommendations to guide the programs development.

Cosmology Beyond Einstein

Author: Adam R. Solomon
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319466216
Size: 17.33 MB
Format: PDF
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This work investigates the theoretical and cosmological implications of modifying Einstein's theory of general relativity. It explores two classes of modifications to gravity: those in which the graviton is given a small mass, and those in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken. It elucidates the nature of cosmological perturbations in theories of massive bimetric gravity, including a potentially deadly instability. Theories of gravity beyond general relativity could explain why the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, obviating the need for a dark energy, and can also affect the evolution of the early Universe. Next, it investigates the nature of spacetime in massive gravity theories that contain two different spacetime metrics. Lastly, the strongest constraints to date are placed on the size of Lorentz-violating effects in the gravity sector during inflation.

Beyond Einstein

Author: David E. Rowe
Publisher: Birkhäuser
ISBN: 9781493977062
Size: 34.17 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Beyond Einstein: Perspectives on Geometry, Gravitation, and Cosmology explores the rich interplay between mathematical and physical ideas by studying the interactions of major actors and the roles of important research communities over the course of the last century.

Beyond Einstein And E Mc2

Author: A. M. Fridman
Publisher: Cambridge International Science Publishing
ISBN: 9781907343315
Size: 13.29 MB
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The origin of E = mc2 may be understood since days of Newton but qualitatively. If Einstein's September 1905 paper is critically analyzed (with different values of variables) then the feasible result is 'when light energy is emitted by a luminous body its mass must increase', which is a contradiction. The perpetual energy machine is not possible. The reason is that Einstein derived light energy-mass interconversion equation (L = mc2) under special conditions of variables only.

Big Bang

Author: Simon Singh
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0007162219
Size: 43.30 MB
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A half century ago, a shocking Washington Post headline claimed that the world began in five cataclysmic minutes rather than having existed for all time; a skeptical scientist dubbed the maverick theory the Big Bang. In this amazingly comprehensible history of the universe, Simon Singh decodes the mystery behind the Big Bang theory, lading us through the development of one of the most extraordinary, important, and awe-inspiring theories in science.