Berber Government

Author: Hugh Roberts
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1845112512
Size: 13.64 MB
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The Berber identity movement in North Africa was pioneered by the Kabyles of Algeria. But a preoccupation with identity and language has obscured the fact that Kabyle dissidence has been rooted in democratic aspirations inspired by the political traditions of Kabylia itself, a Berber-speaking region in the north of Algeria. The political organisation of pre-colonial Kabylia, from which these traditions originate, was well-described by nineteenth-century French ethnographers. But their inability to explain it led to a trend amongst later theorists of Berber society, such as Ernest Gellner and Pierre Bourdieu, to dismiss Kabylia's political institutions, notably the jema'a (assembly or council), and to reduce Berber politics to a function of social structure and shared religion. In Berber Government, Hugh Roberts, a renowned expert on North Africa, uncovers and explores the remarkable logics of Kabyle political organisation. Combining political anthropology and political and social history in an interdisciplinary analysis, Roberts challenges the excessive emphasis on kinship and religion in the study of the Maghreb.

The Seljuks Of Anatolia

Author: Andrew Peacock
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848858876
Size: 69.40 MB
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One of the most powerful dynasties to rule in the medieval Middle East, the Seljuks played a critical role in the development of Anatolia's multi-ethnic, multi-confessional identity. Under Seljuk rule (c. 1081-1308) the formerly Christian Byzantine territories of Anatolia were transformed by the development of Muslim culture, society and politics, and it was then - well before the arrival of the Ottomans - that a Turkish population became firmly established in these lands. Here, Andrew Peacock and Sara Nur Yildiz explore the history of Anatolia under Seljuk rule in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, examining developments in culture, politics, religion and society and shedding new light on the influence of the dynasty within Anatolia and throughout Western Asia. The Seljuks of Anatolia will therefore be of great interest to researchers with interests in Byzantium as well as the material culture and society of the medieval Islamic world.

The Islamic Byzantine Frontier

Author: A. Asa Eger
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1780761570
Size: 37.77 MB
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The retreat of the Byzantine Army from Syria in around 650 CE, in advance of the approaching Arab armies, is one that has resounded emphatically in the works of both Islamic and Christian writers, and created an enduring motif: that of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier. For centuries, Byzantine and Islamic scholars have evocatively sketched a contested border: the annual raids between the two, the line of fortified fortresses defending Islamic lands, the no-man's land in between and the birth of jihad. In their early representations of a Muslim-Christian encounter, accounts of the Islamic-Byzantine frontier are charged with significance for a future 'clash of civilizations' that often envisions a polarised world. A. Asa Eger examines the two aspects of this frontier: its ideological and physical ones. By uniting an exploration of both the real and material frontier and its more ideological military and religious implications, he offers a more complex vision of this dividing line than has been traditionally disseminated. With analysis grounded in archaeological evidence as well the relevant historical and religious texts, Eger brings together a nuanced exploration of this vital element of medieval history.

Imperial Identities

Author: Patricia M. E. Lorcin
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 9781860643767
Size: 59.33 MB
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Using colonial Algeria as the starting point of her analysis, Patricia Lorcin explores the manner in which ethnic categories and cultural distinctions are developed and used in society. She focuses on the colonial images of "good" Kabyle and "bad" Arab (usually referred to as the Kabyle Myth) and examines the circumstances out of which they arose, as well as the intellectual and ideological influences which shaped them. Her study demonstrates how these images were used to negate the underlying beliefs and values of the dominated society and to impose French cultural, social and political values. By tracing the evolution of ethnic categories over time, Lorcin reveals their inherently unstable nature and the continual process of redefinition in accordance with circumstance and political or social expediency.

Almohads

Author: Allen James Fromherz
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857712071
Size: 71.39 MB
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How did an obscure Islamic visionary found an empire? The Almohad Empire at its zenith in the 12th century was the major power in Mediterranean and North Africa, ruling a huge and disparate region from the Atlas Mountains to Tunisia, Morocco and Andalusia. _x000D_ _x000D_ Allen Fromherz, drawing on medieval Arabic and Berber sources, analyses the history and myths surrounding the rise of the Almohads. He shows how Muhammad Ibn Tumart, the son of an obscure Berber tribal chief, founded his mission to reform Islam - then at a low point in its history, battered by the crusades, having lost Jerusalem and been undermined by weak spiritual and political leadership. Ibn Tumart was proclaimed Mahdi by the Berber tribes, as one who heralded the golden age of Islam. He provided charismatic leadership, and a message of unswerving adherence to absolute monotheism and fundamental Islam, to be enforced by jihad - holy war. He died in 1130, before his dream could be accomplished but his successors quickly built on his foundation, conquering Marrakech - the door to the Sahara gold trade and the greatest city of commerce and trade in North Africa. Ibn Tumart and his legacy were to prove the launch-pad for empire, leading to Almohad domination of the Western Mediterranean from Tunisia to Morocco and Andalusia. It became the seat of a brilliant civilisation, the seed-bed of a 12th-century renaissance and flowering of scholarship which reached far into the Middle East and Europe. _x000D_ _x000D_ Fromherz shows how Tumart formed the sinews of empire - by charismatic leadership, a reformed and powerful Islam, unity based on the closely-knit traditions of the Berber tribes, military power and sound administration. This is the first account of the Almohads in English and will be essential for all who are interested in Islam, the Almohad Empire, North Africa and Middle East, and the lasting cultural effect on the region and on Europe.

Failed Alliances Of The Cold War

Author: Panagiotis Dimitrakis
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 1848859740
Size: 75.17 MB
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The Cold War was a period of intense geopolitical rivalry, in which diplomacy and international relations in Asia and the Middle East acquired huge global significance. In this study, Panagiotis Dimitrakis explores British policy towards SEATO (South East Asia Treaty Organization) and CENTO (Central Treaty Organization). Designed in the 1950s to counter the Soviet Union’s attempts to expand its global influence, these alliances with Asian and Middle Eastern powers were the focus of Western efforts to maintain their regional presence. Yet they failed to bring together the differing aims and ambitions of their regional members, and were dissolved in 1977 and 1979 respectively. This study, based on recently declassified documents, examines the Cold War policies of the United States, Iran, and Turkey as well as Pakistan’s relations with India and the effects of British diplomacy on the war in Vietnam. Charting the repeated failures of Britain and the United States to come to the defence of their allies in Asia and the Middle East, Failed Alliances of the Cold War will be a crucial point of reference for scholars of the Cold War.

The Berber Identity Movement And The Challenge To North African States

Author: Bruce Maddy-Weitzman
Publisher: University of Texas Press
ISBN: 0292745052
Size: 45.49 MB
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Like many indigenous groups that have endured centuries of subordination, the Berber/Amazigh peoples of North Africa are demanding linguistic and cultural recognition and the redressing of injustices. Indeed, the movement seeks nothing less than a refashioning of the identity of North African states, a rewriting of their history, and a fundamental change in the basis of collective life. In so doing, it poses a challenge to the existing political and sociocultural orders in Morocco and Algeria, while serving as an important counterpoint to the oppositionist Islamist current. This is the first book-length study to analyze the rise of the modern ethnocultural Berber/Amazigh movement in North Africa and the Berber diaspora. Bruce Maddy-Weitzman begins by tracing North African history from the perspective of its indigenous Berber inhabitants and their interactions with more powerful societies, from Hellenic and Roman times, through a millennium of Islam, to the era of Western colonialism. He then concentrates on the marginalization and eventual reemergence of the Berber question in independent Algeria and Morocco, against a background of the growing crisis of regime legitimacy in each country. His investigation illuminates many issues, including the fashioning of official national narratives and policies aimed at subordinating Berbers in an Arab nationalist and Islamic-centered universe; the emergence of a counter-movement promoting an expansive Berber "imagining" that emphasizes the rights of minority groups and indigenous peoples; and the international aspects of modern Berberism.

Jerusalem

Author: Roberto Mazza
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857713930
Size: 74.84 MB
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Led by General Allenby, British troops entered Jerusalem in December 1917, thereby ending Ottoman rule and opening a new and important era in the history of Jerusalem. This historical moment has often been described as the beginning of a period of great change and transformation, depicting the British as the real modernisers of Jerusalem. _x000D_ _x000D_ In this study, Mazza does not offer just another history of Jerusalem. He focuses on the often neglected transition from Ottoman rule to British administration, examining the impact of the First World War and considering the socio-political changes which occurred as a result of the transition. He also considers the impact of these changes on the local population and how they, in turn, could act as agents of change in this formative period. He discusses the role of the British in Jerusalem as well as reactions to the occupation in Britain. Through the extensive use of case studies and unpublished archival material from Spain and Vatican archives, Mazza takes a fresh approach to this period of Jerusalem’s history; focusing on a previously overlooked area and opening the field to new perspectives and research._x000D_

State Power And Politics In The Making Of The Modern Middle East

Author: Roger Owen
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1134432917
Size: 30.95 MB
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Roger Owen has fully revised and updated his authoritative text to take into account the latest developments in the Middle East. This book continues to serve as an excellent introduction for newcomers to the modern history and politics of this fascinating region. This third edition continues to explore the emergence of individual Middle Eastern states since the fall of the Ottoman Empire at the end of the First World War and the key themes that have characterized the region since then.

Hardship And Deliverance In The Islamic Tradition

Author: Nouha Khalifa
Publisher: I.B.Tauris
ISBN: 0857713175
Size: 41.39 MB
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Al-Tanûkî was a judge who was born in Basra and lived in Baghdad during the tenth century CE. During his life he wrote three books which compiled various forms of oral literature, including poetry, stories, anecdotes and hadith. In this introduction to the works and thought of al-Tanûkî, Nouha Khalifa explores the central theme within his narratives of hardship and deliverance. _x000D_ _x000D_ It is clear from his works that al-Tanûkî was principally concerned with how mankind can alleviate hardship and suffering in life and achieve deliverance. Khalifa explores al-Tanûkî’s recurring themes of love, generosity and the journey, and how through his narratives al-Tanûkî unveils his central message: that ‘So truly with hardship comes ease, truly with hardship comes ease.’ _x000D_ _x000D_ Al-Tanûkî’s unshakable conviction in the necessity of deliverance is rooted in his Mu'tazilite doctrine, an early school of Sunni Islamic theology which sought to ground Islamic tenets in reason, and which drew upon early Islamic philosophy, Greek philosophy and Hellenistic philosophy. Khalifa therefore studies al-Tanûkî's works in the light of Mu‘tazilism by highlighting the relationship between literature, theology and spirituality. The study also shows how religious themes play a role in al-Tanûkî’s vibrant stories which combine elements of both reality and fiction._x000D_ _x000D_ Khalifa examines the historical, cultural and literary contexts in tenth-century Iraq, and delves deeper into aspects of Mu‘tazilism in al-Tanûkî’s compilations. Al-Tanûkî’s preoccupation with the journey, love and generosity are inextricably linked with his Mu’tazilite thought. The journey is a physical journey on earth which symbolises mankind’s spiritual journey towards God and the quest to achieve deliverance; God is the source of love upon earth, and profane love is a manifestation of divine love of God; mankind’s generosity is the manifestation of God’s inherent generosity, and generosity is the expression of mankind’s love for God._x000D_ _x000D_ This fascinating study makes available the works and ideas of al-Tanûkî for the first time, and provides a fresh insight into medieval Middle Eastern culture, history and religious thought._x000D_