Avian Flight

Author: John J. Videler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780199299928
Size: 38.78 MB
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Bird flight has always intrigued mankind. This book provides an up to date account of our existing knowledge on the subject, as well as offering new insights and challenging some established views. A brief history of the science of flight introduces the basic physical principles governing aerial locomotion. A treatment of flight-related functional morphology concentrates on the difference in shape of the arm and hand part of the wings, on the structure and function of tails, and on the shape of the body. The anatomy and mechanical properties of feathers receive special attention. Aerodynamic principles used by birds are explained in theory by simply applying Newton's laws, and in practice by showing the direction and velocity of the attached flow around an arm wing cross section and of the leading edge vortex flow above a hand wing. The Archaeopteryx fossils remain crucial in our understanding of the evolution of bird flight despite the recent discovery of a range of well-preserved ancient birds. A novel insight into the interactions between wings and air challenges established theories relating to the origin of bird flight. Take-off, flapping flight, gliding and landing are the basic ingredients of bird flight, and birds use a variety of flight styles from hovering to soaring. Flight muscles consisting of mosaics of specialised fibres are the engines that generate the force required to keep the wings and tail in the gliding configuration and perform work during flapping motion. The energy required to fly can be estimated or measured directly, and a comparison of the empirical results provides insights into the trend in metabolic costs of flight of birds varying in shape and mass from hummingbirds to albatrosses.

Avian Flight

Author: John J. Videler
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 9780198566038
Size: 17.81 MB
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Avian Flight covers all the main aspects of aerial locomotion by birds including sections on the history of thinking about bird flight, aerodynamics, functional morphology, evolution, kinematics, physiology, energetics and the cost of flight. The subject is complex and still not yet fully understood, and the author argues a convincing case for rethinking or even abandoning some of the old, well-established concepts.

Living Machines

Author: Tony J. Prescott
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191662569
Size: 67.94 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
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Contemporary research in the field of robotics attempts to harness the versatility and sustainability of living organisms. By exploiting those natural principles, scientists hope to render a renewable, adaptable, and robust class of technology that can facilitate self-repairing, social, and moral—even conscious—machines. This is the realm of robotics that scientists call "the living machine". Living Machines can be divided into two entities-biomimetic systems, those that harness the principles discovered in nature and embody them in new artifacts, and biohybrid systems, which couple biological entities with synthetic ones. Living Machines: A handbook of research in biomimetic and biohybrid systems surveys this flourishing area of research. It captures the current state of play and points to the opportunities ahead, addressing such fields as self-organization and co-operativity, biologically-inspired active materials, self-assembly and self-repair, learning, memory, control architectures and self-regulation, locomotion in air, on land or in water, perception, cognition, control, and communication. In all of these areas, the potential of biomimetics is shown through the construction of a wide range of different biomimetic devices and animal-like robots. Biohybrid systems is a relatively new field, with exciting and largely unknown potential, but one that is likely to shape the future of humanity. Chapters outline current research in areas including brain-machine interfaces-where neurons are connected to microscopic sensors and actuators-and various forms of intelligent prostheses from sensory devices like artificial retinas, to life-like artificial limbs, brain implants, and virtual reality-based rehabilitation approaches. The handbook concludes by exploring the impact living machine technology will have on both society and the individual, by forcing human beings to question how we see and understand ourselves. With contributions from leading researchers drawing on ideas from science, engineering, and the humanities, this handbook will appeal to both undergraduate and postgraduate students of biomimetic and biohybrid technologies. Researchers in the areas of computational modeling and engineering, including artificial intelligence, machine learning, artificial life, biorobotics, neurorobotics, and human-machine interfaces, will find Living Machines an invaluable resource.

Invitation To Generalized Empirical Method In Philosophy And Science

Author: Quinn Terrance J
Publisher: World Scientific
ISBN: 9813208457
Size: 70.27 MB
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Bernard Lonergan identified the need and possibility of what he called "generalized empirical method" in science and philosophy. Implementation will be a future community achievement. The book enters into details of a selection of examples in the sciences and philosophy of science. These are provided not to engage in, or blend the present aim with traditional philosophical debate, but as points of entry to help reveal the possibility and need of balanced empirical method. Taking words of Lonergan: "(Q)uestions of method are practical. So my purpose in these (chapters) is not to demonstrate what is necessary. It is not to forecast what is probable. It is ... to invite you to share in the exploration of a proposal" (Bernard Lonergan, A Third Collection (1985), 114). The main examples are drawn from biochemistry and biology, although heuristics envisioned will include all sciences.

Biomimetics

Author: Yoseph Bar-Cohen
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1439834776
Size: 70.74 MB
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Mimicking nature – from science fiction to engineering reality Humans have always looked to nature’s inventions as a source of inspiration. The observation of flying birds and insects leads to innovations in aeronautics. Collision avoidance sensors mimic the whiskers of rodents. Optimization algorithms are based on survival of the fittest, the seed-picking process of pigeons, or the behavior of ant colonies. In recent years these efforts have become more intensive, with researchers seeking rules, concepts, and principles of biology to inspire new possibilities in materials, mechanisms, algorithms, and fabrication processes. A review of the current state of the art, Biomimetics: Nature Based Innovation documents key biological solutions that provide a model for innovations in engineering and science. Leading experts address a wide range of topics, including: Artificial senses and organs Mimicry at the cell–materials interface Multiscale modeling of plant cell wall architecture and tissue mechanics The making of biomimetic composites Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators as artificial muscles EAP-based refreshable braille displays Biomimetic optics from the angles of biology and plants Biomimicry of flying birds, insects, and marine biology Applications of biomimetics in manufacturing, products, and medicine Robotics, including the development of human-like robots Biologically inspired design as a tool for interdisciplinary education The biomimetic process in artistic creation The final chapter outlines the challenges to biomimetic-related innovation and offers a vision for the future. A follow-up to Biomimetics: Biologically Inspired Technologies (2005), this comprehensive reference methodically surveys the latest advances in this rapidly emerging field. It features an abundance of illustrations, including a 32-page full-color insert, and provides extensive references for engineers and scientists interested in delving deeper into the study of biomimetics.

Ptilochronology

Author: Thomas C. Grubb
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199295506
Size: 77.13 MB
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This book reports and summarizes the findings of several dozen studies that have used ptilochronology (the study of feather time) as a research tool. It provides a practical resource as well as a source of understanding of how the technique can be used to address important questions in avian biology.

Bird Migration

Author: Peter Berthold
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN:
Size: 20.90 MB
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An accessible description of the science of bird migration. Berthold not only outlines the incredible stamina and navigation skills of birds in their seasonal movements, but he also discusses recent ideas, hypotheses, experimental results, and methods in this fascinating field. The bookprovides an overall sense of how we know what we know. There are twelve chapters, including information on types of migration, migratory behaviour, physiological adaptations, orientation mechanisms and navigation, and conservation needs of migrants. For birdwatchers and naturalists, as well as professional ornithologists, this book will inspire a newappreciation and understanding of migrating birds.

Advanced Topics On Computer Vision Control And Robotics In Mechatronics

Author: Osslan Osiris Vergara Villegas
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 331977770X
Size: 33.85 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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The field of mechatronics (which is the synergistic combination of precision mechanical engineering, electronic control and systems thinking in the design of products and manufacturing processes) is gaining much attention in industries and academics. It was detected that the topics of computer vision, control and robotics are imperative for the successful of mechatronics systems. This book includes several chapters which report successful study cases about computer vision, control and robotics. The readers will have the latest information related to mechatronics, that contains the details of implementation, and the description of the test scenarios.

Bird Parasite Interactions

Author: Jenella E. Loye
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198577389
Size: 55.81 MB
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Birds are hosts to many parasites, internal and external. The parasites inevitably form a burden to the host bird and therefore may affect its ability to grow, survive, and reproduce; its behaviour; and the distribution and abundance of the whole species. In consequence, bird-parasite systems have attracted attention from diverse fields and the literature has been spread out in a wide range of specialized journals. The editors of this book have drawn together a comprehensive range of experts in the field to provide an invaluable reference of current work in bird-parasite interactions. The book is divided into four parts. The introduction provides the contemporary context of research in bird-parasite systems and presents case studies which combine theoretical concepts with experimental data. Subsequent parts focus on the ecology; behavioural responses; and the effect of parasitism on sexual selection.

On The Wing

Author: David E. Alexander
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199996792
Size: 75.10 MB
Format: PDF
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Ask anybody what superpower they wished to possess and odds are the answer just might be "the ability to fly." What is it about soaring through the air held up by the power of one's own body that has captivated humans for so long? David Alexander examines the evolution of flight in the only four animals to have evolved this ability: insects, pterosaurs, birds, and bats. With an accessible writing style grounded in rigorous research, Alexander breaks new ground in a field that has previously been confined to specialists. While birds have received the majority of attention from flight researchers, Alexander pays equal attention to all four groups of flyers-something that no other book on the subject has done before now. In a streamlined and captivating way, David Alexander demonstrates the links between the tiny 2-mm thrip and the enormous albatross with the 12 feet wingspan used to cross oceans. The book delves into the fossil record of flyers enough to satisfy the budding paleontologist, while also pleasing ornithologists and entomologists alike with its treatment of animal behavior, flapping mechanisms, and wing-origin theory. Alexander uses relatable examples to draw in readers even without a natural interest in birds, bees, and bats. He takes something that is so off-limits and unfamiliar to humans-the act of flying-and puts it in the context of experiences that many readers can relate to. Alexander guides readers through the anomalies of the flying world: hovering hummingbirds, unexpected gliders (squirrels, for instance), and the flyers that went extinct (pterosaurs). Alexander also delves into wing-origin theory and explores whether birds entered the skies from the trees down (as gliders) or from the ground up (as runners) and uses the latest fossil evidence to present readers with an answer.