Amphioxus Immunity

Author: An-Long Xu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128096470
Size: 43.79 MB
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Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

Skin Immune System Sis

Author: Jan D. Bos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849340161
Size: 18.17 MB
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Immunodermatology is a field covering the majority of skin diseases, including the most prevalent onesin the general population. The Second Edition of Skin Immune System (SIS) discusses immune-mediated skin diseases and disease groups in which the SIS plays a role. It covers major findings in immunophysiology and immunopathology that have occurred since the introduction of the First Edition in 1990. As the subtitle indicates, the Second Edition adds a new emphasis on cutaneous immunology, and also includes new information on immune-based therapeutic interventions and methods, such as phototherapy and the immunological therapy of skin cancer. The book contains Part I, with introductory chapters; Part II, with descriptions of the cellular elements; and Part III, which describes the humoral and molecular components of SIS. Part IV follows to integrate the facts described in Parts II and III into concepts of pathophysiology. It contains a number of concepts entitled "response patterns" that describe how the constitutional elements of SIS work together. New in this edition are the descriptions of immunodermatological diseases individually described in Part V. Part VI is also all new and summarizes principles of immunotherapy.

M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork In The Road To Health And Disease

Author: Charles Dudley Mills
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288919499X
Size: 57.42 MB
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Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.

The Evolution Of The Immune System

Author: Davide Malagoli
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802013X
Size: 10.72 MB
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The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

Marine Omics

Author: Se-Kwon Kim
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1482258218
Size: 70.33 MB
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This book provides comprehensive coverage on current trends in marine omics of various relevant topics such as genomics, lipidomics, proteomics, foodomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics as related to and applied to marine biotechnology, molecular biology, marine biology, marine microbiology, environmental biotechnology, environmental science, aquaculture, pharmaceutical science and bioprocess engineering.

The Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis

Author:
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 9780080559360
Size: 12.26 MB
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis controls reactions to stress and regulates various body processes such as digestion, the immune system, mood and sexuality, and energy usage. This volume focuses on the role it plays in the immune system and provides substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. * Evidence presented in this book suggests that the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems form the Neuroendoimmune Supersystem, which integrates all the biological functions of higher organisms both in health and disease for their entire life cycle. * Contributors include both the scientists who initiated the work on the HPA axis and on the autonomic nervous system, and those who joined the field later.

Origin And Evolution Of The Vertebrate Immune System

Author: L. Du Pasquier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642596746
Size: 19.38 MB
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The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.

Pathogen Host Interactions Antigenic Variation V Somatic Adaptations

Author: Ellen Hsu
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319208195
Size: 33.65 MB
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This volume provides in-depth reviews of model systems that exemplify the arms race in host-pathogen interactions. Somatic adaptations are responsible for the individualization of biological responses to the environment, and the continual struggle between host immune systems and invading pathogens has given rise to corresponding processes that produce molecular variation. Whether in mollusks or human beings, various host somatic mechanisms have evolved independently, providing responses to counter rapidly-changing pathogens. The pathways they utilize can include non-heritable changes involving RNA and post-translational modifications, or changes that produce somatic DNA recombination and mutation. For infectious organisms such as protozoans and flatworms, antigenic variation is central to their survival strategy. Evolving the ability to evade the host immune system not only increases their chances of survival but is also necessary for successful re-infection within the host population.