Amphioxus Immunity

Author: An-Long Xu
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0128096470
Size: 46.47 MB
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Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level

Innate Immunity Of Plants Animals And Humans

Author: Holger Heine
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540739300
Size: 66.90 MB
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This book has been cunningly designed to provide an overview of our current knowledge about the innate immune systems of these three types of organisms. It not only covers the innate immune mechanisms and responses of such diverse organisms as plants, Cnidaria, Drosophila, urochordates and zebrafish, but also the major receptor systems in mammalians and humans. It delves too into the central defense mechanisms, antimicrobial peptides and the complement system.

Skin Immune System Sis

Author: Jan D. Bos
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 9780849340161
Size: 30.50 MB
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Immunodermatology is a field covering the majority of skin diseases, including the most prevalent onesin the general population. The Second Edition of Skin Immune System (SIS) discusses immune-mediated skin diseases and disease groups in which the SIS plays a role. It covers major findings in immunophysiology and immunopathology that have occurred since the introduction of the First Edition in 1990. As the subtitle indicates, the Second Edition adds a new emphasis on cutaneous immunology, and also includes new information on immune-based therapeutic interventions and methods, such as phototherapy and the immunological therapy of skin cancer. The book contains Part I, with introductory chapters; Part II, with descriptions of the cellular elements; and Part III, which describes the humoral and molecular components of SIS. Part IV follows to integrate the facts described in Parts II and III into concepts of pathophysiology. It contains a number of concepts entitled "response patterns" that describe how the constitutional elements of SIS work together. New in this edition are the descriptions of immunodermatological diseases individually described in Part V. Part VI is also all new and summarizes principles of immunotherapy.

The Evolution Of The Immune System

Author: Davide Malagoli
Publisher: Academic Press
ISBN: 012802013X
Size: 32.92 MB
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The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership

M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork In The Road To Health And Disease

Author: Charles Dudley Mills
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 288919499X
Size: 29.87 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.

Changing Views Of The Evolution Of Immunity

Author: Gary W. Litman
Publisher: Frontiers E-books
ISBN: 2889191710
Size: 34.64 MB
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The multitude of cells, signaling pathways, receptors, novel genetic recombination mechanisms and interactive pathways of receptor function and cell differentiation that constitute the vertebrate adaptive immune system are integrally linked with the multicomponent innate immune system. At first glance, the levels of complexity seen in both systems at the phylogenetic level of mammals present what seem to be insurmountable hurdles in terms of achieving a systematic understanding of the evolution of immunity. New research directions and approaches suggest that resolution of many long-standing questions in this area is now possible. Historically, immunologists considered lower vertebrates and invertebrates as “simpler” forms, i.e., they were expected to possess more basic (less layered) levels of immunological complexity and thus potentially would serve as important resources. By considering the systematic placement of representative species in the context of phylogeny, characterizing their immune receptors, co-receptors as well as accessory molecules and evaluating responses to immunologic stimuli, it was thought that a clearer picture of immune evolution would emerge. There is no doubt that this approach has achieved some notable successes but for the most part it has fallen short in terms of achieving a broad understanding of the immunologic needs of many relevant models and how adaptive change in immune function is effected. Even if a structurally relevant ortholog of an immune effector is identified in a model organism, there is no reason to assume that it functions in a corresponding manner in disparate phylogenetic taxa. For example, survival of a sessile marine invertebrate, whose anatomical form puts it in open and contiguous contact with a literal sea of microorganisms and viruses, would be thought to depend, at least in part, on a “capable” immune response; however, at present, we have no real understanding of how this is achieved in an integrated manner. Furthermore, questions arise as to whether or not phenomena that are considered integral components of vertebrate-type immunity such as memory, tolerance, somatic change and clonal selection exist in invertebrates and if their functions parallel those recognized in mammals. More often than not, our interpretations are guided by preconceived notions that are based on observations made in distant species that often do not apply to far- removed taxa. We anticipate that major advances in our understanding of this broad subject are now forthcoming as resources exist or are being developed for examining important model organisms in their natural environments instead of within the confines of in vitro systems of potentially remote physiological significance. Taking a wide range of hypotheses, observations and interpretations into account, in this special topic, contributors have developed a comprehensive overview emphasizing new directions and interpretations for understanding basic aspects of immunity that consider unique features inherent to various model systems, their life histories and habitats. Approaches applied with key model organisms maintained and confronted with relevant challenges under natural conditions are emphasized. Current concepts of self and nonself are addressed not only in terms of immunity but also reproductive fitness. How genetic variation in immune effector molecules is achieved and maintained in natural populations is examined; particular attention is directed to response interfaces that factor in symbiotic interactions. Gene expansion and mechanisms of genetic diversification are explored. How diverse molecules and a variety of effector cells contribute to our broad understanding of the evolution of a remarkably complex, integrated system and how this work is facilitating our understanding of mammalian immunity is addressed.

Origin And Evolution Of The Vertebrate Immune System

Author: L. Du Pasquier
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642596746
Size: 71.50 MB
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The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.