American Pendulum

Author: Christopher Hemmer
Publisher: Cornell University Press
ISBN: 1501701185
Size: 58.52 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
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As new presidential administrations come into power, they each bring their own approach to foreign policy. No grand strategy, however, is going to be completely novel. New administrations never start with a blank slate, so it is always possible to see similarities between an administration and its predecessors. Conversely, since each administration faces novel problems and operates in a unique context, no foreign policy strategy is going to be an exact replica of its predecessors. In American Pendulum, Christopher Hemmer examines America's grand strategic choices between 1914 and 2014 using four recurring debates in American foreign policy as lenses. First, how should the United States balance the trade-offs between working alone versus working with other states and international organizations? Second, what is the proper place of American values in foreign policy? Third, where does the strategic perimeter of the United States lie? And fourth, is time on the side of the United States or of its enemies? Offering new readings of debates within the Wilson, Truman, Nixon, Bush, and Obama administrations, Hemmer asserts that heated debates, disagreements, and even confusions over U.S. grand strategy are not only normal but also beneficial. He challenges the claim that uncertainties or inconsistences about the nation's role in the world or approach to security issues betray strategic confusion or the absence of a grand strategy. American foreign policy, he states, is most in danger not when debates are at their most pointed but when the weight of opinion crushes dissent. As the United States looks ahead to an increasingly multipolar world with increasing complicated security issues, Hemmer concludes, developing an effective grand strategy requires ongoing contestation and compromises between competing visions and policies.

Emergent Strategy And Grand Strategy

Author: Ionut Popescu
Publisher: JHU Press
ISBN: 1421423774
Size: 53.96 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
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"Ionut Popescu explores how successful American grand strategy comes about. For most experts in the academic world of political science and in the Washington policymaking community, the answer lies in the design and implementation of a farsighted strategic plan or framework. The role of such a Grand Design is to guide the president's foreign policy actions and resource allocation decisions in the pursuit of specific long-term objectives. The alternative to following a Grand Design is usually said to consist of ad-hoc, incoherent, and ultimately unsuccessful foreign policy decision-making. But what if successful grand strategies are sometimes formed through an emergent process of learning and adaptation, instead of being the product of strategic planning and farsighted designs? Popescu argues that the Emergent Strategy model, adapted from the business strategy literature, explains some of the traditional success stories and failures of American grand strategy better than the prevalent Grand Design model. These findings suggest the need to shift the focus of policymakers away from planning for long-term objectives and toward short- and medium-term incremental learning and adaptation. Based on this new theoretical understanding of successful grand strategy being formed by either Design or Emergent elements depending on the circumstances, the book also offers a framework to help policymakers and strategic planners choose the right model and tools based on the level of uncertainty they face in the external environment"--

Poland In Transatlantic Relations After 1989

Author: Małgorzata Zachara
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 1527507408
Size: 44.64 MB
Format: PDF
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This volume brings together a number of scholars from a variety of disciplines to examine the phenomenon of the transformation of Poland within the context of regional and global power relations, focusing in particular on analyses of the country’s political and social development within the area of transatlantic relations. It provides a distinct view on the current dynamics and future perspectives of the transatlantic alliance. At a time when the story of Poland as the shining example of post-Communist success and European integration has been interrupted, several other leading narratives of the Western world also appear to be in danger: western values cannot be considered to be universal, the message of globalization has lost its power, and the structure of the international order is described in increasingly delusional terms. The study sheds light on features of Poland’s performance on the regional scene and will stimulate discussion about the lessons that may be learned from the Polish experience by other states facing the challenges of transformation. The last 25 years of Polish history represent the unquestioned success of this political concept. Poland has become an independent actor able to take responsibility for its own future, thanks to the favorable configuration of global powers and the support provided by international leaders. Was this merely a historical episode that created an opportunity for one actor? Can this scenario be repeated? Under what conditions?

Ulusal G Venlik Stratejisi

Author: Hasan Basri Yalçın
Publisher: SET Vakfı İktisadi İşletmesi
ISBN: 9752459056
Size: 74.65 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
View: 2012
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Bu kitap ulusal güvenlik stratejileri üzerinedir. Çağdaş ulusal güvenlik belgelerinin ne yönde ilerlediğini inceleyecek ve bunun nedenlerini açıklamaya çalışacaktır. Bu amaçla Birleşmiş Milletler Güvenlik Konseyi’nin beş daimi üyesinin son ikişer ulusal güvenlik strateji belgesi ayrıntılı bir biçimde ele alınacaktır. Toplam on belge üzerinde büyük güçler olarak isimlendirilebilecek uluslararası aktörlerin ulusal güvenliklerini korumak için nasıl plan yaptıkları ortaya konulacaktır. Bu devletlerin (ABD, İngiltere, Fransa, Rusya ve Çin) güvenlikten ne anladıkları ve güvenliği nasıl tanımladıkları tartışılacaktır. Söz konusu aktörlerin ulusal güvenlik belgelerine göre güvenlik sadece devletler arası bir olgu mudur yoksa devlet dışı aktör ve faktörler de güvenlik için hesaba katılır mı? Güvenlik tehditleri somut bir biçimde mi tanımlanmaktadır yoksa soyut halleriyle mi bırakılmaktadır? Güvenlik kavramsallaştırmasının arkasındaki stratejik zihniyet nedir? Güvenlik kavramsallaştırmasını doğuran analizin dayandığı teorik zihniyet nasıl çalışmaktadır? Öncelikle bu ve benzeri sorulara cevaplar aranarak son dönem ulusal güvenlik strateji belgelerini oluşturan zihniyetin ne yöne evrildiği ve bunun ne tür güvenlik kavramsallaştırmaları ürettiği araştırılacaktır. Bu kavramsallaştırmaların ulusal güvenlik strateji belgesinde ortaya konan tehdit ya da önerilen stratejik yöntemlere katkısının olup olmadığı meselesi değerlendirilecektir.