A Practical Approach To Dynamical Systems For Engineers

Author: Patricia Mellodge
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 0081002246
Size: 38.98 MB
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A Practical Approach to Dynamical Systems for Engineers takes the abstract mathematical concepts behind dynamical systems and applies them to real-world systems, such as a car traveling down the road, the ripples caused by throwing a pebble into a pond, and a clock pendulum swinging back and forth. Many relevant topics are covered, including modeling systems using differential equations, transfer functions, state-space representation, Hamiltonian systems, stability and equilibrium, and nonlinear system characteristics with examples including chaos, bifurcation, and limit cycles. In addition, MATLAB is used extensively to show how the analysis methods are applied to the examples. It is assumed readers will have an understanding of calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, and an interest in mechanical and electrical dynamical systems. Presents applications in engineering to show the adoption of dynamical system analytical methods Provides examples on the dynamics of automobiles, aircraft, and human balance, among others, with an emphasis on physical engineering systems MATLAB and Simulink are used throughout to apply the analysis methods and illustrate the ideas Offers in-depth discussions of every abstract concept, described in an intuitive manner, and illustrated using practical examples, bridging the gap between theory and practice Ideal resource for practicing engineers who need to understand background theory and how to apply it

Diesel Engine System Design

Author: Woodhead Publishing
Publisher: Bukupedia
ISBN: 1845697154
Size: 23.40 MB
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The diesel engine is recognized as the most promising powertrain in the foreseeable future due to its superior thermal efficiency and reliability. The diesel engine has been widely used in commercial vehicles, industrial applications and today’s passenger cars and light-duty trucks. Modern emissions standards and customer demands are driving diesel engineering to become a fast growing applied engineering discipline in order to meet the requirements of designing optimum diesel engines. The engineering population in diesel engine design is growing fast. The need for advanced design theories and professional reference books has become pressing and obvious. This book presents my own experience and findings in many interrelated areas of diesel engine performance analysis and system design. The book also intends to establish an emerging area of diesel engine system design for the diesel industry. Diesel engine design is very complex. It involves many people and companies from OEM (original equipment manufacturer) to suppliers. A system design approach to set up correct engine performance specifications is essential in order to streamline the process. While working at Navistar, a global leading manufacturer of diesel engines and trucks, I noticed several common challenges existing in today’s engine industry: 1. Certain disconnections between academic education and industrial design practice (i.e., sometimes engineers do not know how to apply their classroom engine knowledge to analysis or design in their daily work). 2. The lack of comprehensive explanatory references or textbooks on the design approaches related to diesel engine performance and system integration. People have to rely on scattered literatures of published technical papers, unpublished company reports, and the oral accounts of engineers working in each related field. Unfortunately, very often this scattered information does not provide the direct answer to the needs of a practicing engineer for his daily design challenges. 3. The absence of a unified and systematic theory about diesel engine Preface © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011 system design. People from different areas or organizations use different or sometimes wrong approaches, resulting in much confusion and inconsistency. This has made collaboration and communication within the diesel engine industry itself difficult. 4. Insufficient guidance for research in applied engineering so that it supports the needs of diesel engine system design. The diesel engine is a sophisticated electro-mechanical machine. The system attributes of a diesel engine can be classified into four categories, namely performance, durability, packaging, and cost. Among them, performance (or function) is the leading attribute. Both static (steady state) design and dynamic (transient) design are important to satisfy the performance requirements of the diesel engine. As an industrial commercial product, the diesel engine needs to be designed not only for nominal target performance, but also for taking into account statistical variability and reliability. Engine performance and system design is such a broad area that it affects almost everyone in the engine design business. It involves different areas and job functions, such as system/subsystem/component designs, emissions testing and calibration, vehicle and aftertreatment integration, engine electronic controls, durability testing, etc. A few years ago, I began to receive requests and suggestions from working engineers to write a book to address the above-mentioned needs related to system design. I believe the book should serve as an effective tool in training new engineers. It should supply comprehensive yet easy-to-use references. It should provide a standard approach to conduct system design and analysis. It should also provide a vision for future research needs to improve the quality of diesel engine system design. By witnessing the challenges faced by engineers sometimes lacking the knowledge of how an engine system is designed, and by seeing some problems applying the academic fundamental knowledge to industry design practice, I am convinced that a bridge linking the following three closely inter-related areas is needed: textbooks teaching the fundamental principles; advanced research; and the design practice in the real world of diesel engineers. System design is very important for the integration of simultaneous engineering processes for diesel engine product development, ranging from high-level product strategy planning to detailed production designs. Diesel engine system design is a performance-based emerging technical area for modern engines. The design theory proposed in this book is led by systems engineering principles, and based on advanced optimization theories to achieve precise and probabilistic system designs to integrate a wide range of attributes (performance, durability, packaging, and cost) from the system level to the component level. The system design is conducted by comparing engine configurations and producing system performance specifications with analytical tools in various areas (e.g., engine cycle simulation, vehicle and powertrain dynamics). The system design covers a range of core technical xlii Preface © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011 specialties including vehicle–engine–aftertreatment integration, thermodynamic cycle performance, engine air system design and turbocharger matching, system friction, NVH (noise, vibration and harshness) synthesis, and electronic controls. The importance of diesel engine system design (DESD) has been recognized in the design and development process. The concept of DESD was presented in a book chapter, ‘Heavy-duty diesel engine system design’ written by me in 2008 as a part of the book Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development (Volume 2: Diesel engines) edited by Professor Hua Zhao from Brunel University, UK. In the 2009 SAE Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress held in Chicago on October 6, I had the opportunity to present the concept of diesel engine system design to an audience of about 70 people from the industry. My original interest relating to diesel engine system design dated back to 1995–99 when I studied for my Doctor of Science (D. Sc.) degree at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. My research related to engine piston-assembly lubrication dynamics. That experience inspired my interest in engine friction, dynamics and the relationship between subsystem design and overall engine performance. Since I joined Navistar in 1999, I have been working on advanced simulation analysis of engine performance and system integration. I had the opportunity to assemble a unique functional area – diesel engine system design, and became the Product Manager of the engine system design group in 2003. This book aims to establish the theory of diesel engine system design, including the approaches used in its modeling, design, and advanced research. The central theme of the book is to design a good engine system with performance specifications in the early stage of the product development cycle. Every component that has a major impact on the quality of system design is considered in the theory. The book tries to link everything diesel engineer’s need to know about engine performance and system design in order for them to quickly master all the important topics. The book consists of four parts. Part I addresses the fundamental concepts of diesel engine system design and durability. Parts II-IV focus on engine performance and system integration (EPSI). Due to the limits of space, it is impossible to cover in detail every single subject in one book. The book therefore focuses on less well-developed areas of research. These include: Chapter 1 (the concepts of engine system design), Chapter 2 (engine system durability and reliability), Chapter 3 (optimization approaches used in system design), Chapter 4 (mathematical fundamentals of engine air system theory), Chapter 5 (vehicle performance), Chapter 6 (engine brake), Chapter 7 (from combustion to system design and calibration), Chapter 9 (valvetrain system design), Chapter 10 (system friction), Chapter 11 (system NVH), Chapter 12 (heat rejection), Chapter 13 (pumping loss and air system Preface xliii © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011 design theory) and Chapter 15 (system specification design and subsystem interaction optimization). For the topics that are briefly discussed, extensive organized learning materials are provided in the references and bibliography to direct the reader to find the most important advances in the area. Chapter 2 (durability and reliability) is the most difficult but an extremely important area for system design in the long run. Engine performance specifications are directly tied to durability constraints, and subject to design for reliability as an ultimate design goal. The first part of Chapter 5 (vehicle performance and engine–vehicle matching) provides a detailed summary to facilitate the reader with a streamlined analysis approach although this area has a long standing history. The second part of Chapter 5 (hybrid powertrains) is briefly summarized to introduce the role of engine system design in hybrid powertrain development. The reader is referred to the references and bibliography provided for more detailed discussion on hybrid powertrains. Chapter 11 (system NVH) addresses a very challenging area in systemlevel modeling. System NVH is a very important research direction for diesel engine system design. NVH is extremely complex to analyze. The summary in Chapter 11 puts together all the pieces and tries to set up a foundation for system engineers. NVH attributes that are difficult to analyze usually do not impede the generation of engine system design specifications. Without a good upfront system design to start with, it will be more costly to fix the NVH problems in a later design stage at the component level. Many NVH analysis methods are available at the component and subsystem levels, and the system engineer needs to integrate them. Chapter 8 (aftertreatment integration) and Chapter 14 (system dynamics, transient performance, and engine controls) are two major areas in system design for improving the competitiveness of engine products. They are discussed in a less detailed manner compared to other chapters in this book due to limited space. A comprehensive list of carefully selected references and bibliography is provided for these areas to facilitate the reader. In particular, diesel engine transient performance and electronic controls are not addressed in great detail because these topics have been thoroughly covered in two recently published books by other authors (Diesel Engine Transient Operation – Principles of Operation and Simulation Analysis, by Rakopoulos and Giakoumis and Introduction to Modeling and Control of Internal Combustion Engine Systems, by Guzzella and Onder in 2004). The essence of diesel engine system design can be comprehended briefly as: Σ four major driving goals (emissions, power density, fuel economy, and reliability) Σ four attributes (performance, durability, packaging, and cost) xliv Preface © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011 Σ four cornerstones of analysis (static or steady-state design, dynamic design or system dynamics, first law of thermodynamics, and the second law of thermodynamics). Engine thermodynamics is the foundation of static system design with state variables, while system dynamics forms the basis of dynamic system design and engine controls that handle the transient processes. This book tries to provide abundant information to illustrate those points. The focus of the book is to introduce advanced analysis methods to solve practical design problems rather than conduct pure theoretical research or teach engine fundamentals. A large amount of engine performance simulation analysis results are illustrated. The main readership is design and development engineers rather than software developers. Therefore, the book tries to limit the contents of complex theoretical equations that are usually the foundation of many widely-used commercial software packages. The discussions about such equations can be found from other published books or literatures. I hope the book can benefit a broad range of engine professionals in different disciplines who work on the design and development of modern low-emissions diesel engines equipped with turbocharging and EGR (exhaust gas recirculation). The book tries to provide engineers with a systematic understanding of how engine system design specifications are generated. The book enables system design engineers to directly apply the methods and working knowledge to their daily design and research. The book also introduces engine design knowledge to academic researchers in order to broaden their vision so that they may better support the practical and critical needs of the diesel engine industry. Finally, the book may also help seniorlevel undergraduate or postgraduate students understand how industrial design problems are handled at a system level. Writing such a book on top of my busy working schedule has been a great challenge. Almost all the evening time, weekends and holidays during 2009 were devoted to this book. I am very grateful to my wife, Katty, for her understanding and support. Without her support, this book would not have been possible. I want to thank Professor Hua Zhao at Brunel University for providing helpful suggestions. I greatly appreciate the valuable discussions I have had with my brilliant colleagues at Navistar. I would also like to thank Sheril Leich of Woodhead Publishing for commissioning this book and thank Sheril and Cathryn Freear at Woodhead for their professional support in preparing the book. Qianfan Xin Chicago, USA Preface xlv © Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2011

The Design And Manufacture Of Medical Devices

Author: J Paulo Davim
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1908818182
Size: 71.47 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
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Medical devices play an important role in the field of medical and health technology, and encompass a wide range of health care products. Directive 2007/47/EC defines a medical device as any instrument, apparatus, appliance, software, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used specifically for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application, intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings. The design and manufacture of medical devices brings together a range of articles and case studies dealing with medical device R&D. Chapters in the book cover materials used in medical implants, such as Titanium Oxide, polyurethane, and advanced polymers; devices for specific applications such as spinal and craniofacial implants, and other issues related to medical devices, such as precision machining and integrated telemedicine systems. Contains articles on a diverse range of subjects within the field, with internationally renowned specialists discussing each medical device Offers a practical approach to recent developments in the design and manufacture of medical devices Presents a topic that is the focus of research in many important universities and centres of research worldwide

Structural Dynamics Of Earthquake Engineering

Author: S Rajasekaran
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845695739
Size: 65.67 MB
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Given the risk of earthquakes in many countries, knowing how structural dynamics can be applied to earthquake engineering of structures, both in theory and practice, is a vital aspect of improving the safety of buildings and structures. It can also reduce the number of deaths and injuries and the amount of property damage. The book begins by discussing free vibration of single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems, both damped and undamped, and forced vibration (harmonic force) of SDOF systems. Response to periodic dynamic loadings and impulse loads are also discussed, as are two degrees of freedom linear system response methods and free vibration of multiple degrees of freedom. Further chapters cover time history response by natural mode superposition, numerical solution methods for natural frequencies and mode shapes and differential quadrature, transformation and Finite Element methods for vibration problems. Other topics such as earthquake ground motion, response spectra and earthquake analysis of linear systems are discussed. Structural dynamics of earthquake engineering: theory and application using Mathematica and Matlab provides civil and structural engineers and students with an understanding of the dynamic response of structures to earthquakes and the common analysis techniques employed to evaluate these responses. Worked examples in Mathematica and Matlab are given. Explains the dynamic response of structures to earthquakes including periodic dynamic loadings and impulse loads Examines common analysis techniques such as natural mode superposition, the finite element method and numerical solutions Investigates this important topic in terms of both theory and practise with the inclusion of practical exercise and diagrams

Whirl Flutter Of Turboprop Aircraft Structures

Author: Jiri Cecrdle
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 1782421866
Size: 80.63 MB
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Whirl flutter is the aeroelastic phenomenon caused by the coupling of aircraft propeller aerodynamic forces and the gyroscopic forces of the rotating masses (propeller, gas turbine engine rotor). It may occur on the turboprop, tilt-prop-rotor or rotorcraft aircraft structures. Whirl Flutter of Turboprop Aircraft Structures explores the whirl flutter phenomenon, including theoretical and practical as well as analytical and experimental aspects of the matter. The first introductory part gives a general overview regarding aeroelasticity, followed by the physical principle and the occurrence of whirl flutter in aerospace practice. The next section deals with experiment research including earlier activities performed, particularly from the sixties, as well as recent developments. Subsequent chapters discuss analytical methods such as basic and advanced linear models, and non-linear and CFD based methods. Remaining chapters summarize certification issues including regulation requirements, a description of possible certification approaches and several examples of aircraft certification from the aerospace practice. Finally, a database of relevant books and reports is provided. provides complex information of turboprop aircraft whirl flutter phenomenon presents both theoretical and practical (certification related) issues presents experimental research as well as analytical models (basic and advanced) of matter includes both early-performed works and recent developments contains a listing of relevant books and reports

Non Destructive Evaluation Nde Of Polymer Matrix Composites

Author: Vistasp M. Karbhari
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 085709355X
Size: 64.58 MB
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The increased use of polymer matrix composites in structural applications has led to the growing need for a very high level of quality control and testing of products to ensure and monitor performance over time. Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of polymer matrix composites explores a range of NDE techniques and the use of these techniques in a variety of application areas. Part one provides an overview of a range of NDE and NDT techniques including eddy current testing, shearography, ultrasonics, acoustic emission, and dielectrics. Part two highlights the use of NDE techniques for adhesively bonded applications. Part three focuses on NDE techniques for aerospace applications including the evaluation of aerospace composites for impact damage and flaw characterisation. Finally, the use of traditional and emerging NDE techniques in civil and marine applications is explored in part four. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of polymer matrix composites is a technical resource for researchers and engineers using polymer matrix composites, professionals requiring an understanding of non-destructive evaluation techniques, and academics interested in this field. Explores a range of NDE and NDT techniques and considers future trends Examines in detail NDE techniques for adhesively bonded applications Discusses NDE techniques in aerospace applications including detecting impact damage, ultrasonic techniques and structural health monitoring

Understanding The Tensile Properties Of Concrete

Author: Jaap Weerheijm
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857097539
Size: 70.34 MB
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The response of concrete under tensile loading is crucial for most applications because concrete is much weaker in tension than in compression. Understanding the response mechanisms of concrete under tensile conditions is therefore key to understanding and using concrete in structural applications. Understanding the tensile properties of concrete summarises key recent research in this important subject. After an introduction to concrete, the book is divided into two parts: part one on static response and part two on dynamic response. Part one starts with a summary chapter on the most important parameters that affect the tensile response of concrete. Chapters show how multi scale modelling is used to relate concrete composition to tensile properties. Part two focuses on dynamic response and starts with an introduction to the different regimes of dynamic loading, ranging from the low frequency loading by wind or earthquakes up to the extreme dynamic conditions due to explosions and ballistic impacts. Following chapters review dynamic testing techniques and devices that deal with the various regimes of dynamic loading. Later chapters highlight the dynamic behaviour of concrete from different viewpoints, and the book ends with a chapter on practical examples of how detailed knowledge on tensile properties is used by engineers in structural applications. Drawing on the work of some of the leading experts in the field, Understanding the tensile properties of concrete is a valuable reference for civil and structural engineers as well as those researching this important material. Summarises key recent research in the areas of understanding the response mechanisms of concrete under tensile conditions Provides a summary of the most important parameters that affect the tensile response of concrete and shows how multi scale modeling is used to relate concrete composition to tensile properties Highlights the dynamic behaviour of concrete from different viewpoints and provides practical examples of how detailed knowledge on tensile properties is used by engineers in structural applications

Modelling And Simulation Of Integrated Systems In Engineering

Author: D J Murray-Smith
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857096052
Size: 18.11 MB
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This book places particular emphasis on issues of model quality and ideas of model testing and validation. Mathematical and computer-based models provide a foundation for explaining complex behaviour, decision-making, engineering design and for real-time simulators for research and training. Many engineering design techniques depend on suitable models, assessment of the adequacy of a given model for an intended application is therefore critically important. Generic model structures and dependable libraries of sub-models that can be applied repeatedly are increasingly important. Applications are drawn from the fields of mechanical, aeronautical and control engineering, and involve non-linear lumped-parameter models described by ordinary differential equations. Focuses on issues of model quality and the suitability of a given model for a specific application Multidisciplinary problems within engineering feature strongly in the applications The development and testing of nonlinear dynamic models is given very strong emphasis

Structural Integrity And Durability Of Advanced Composites

Author: Peter Beaumont
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
ISBN: 008100138X
Size: 76.78 MB
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Structural Integrity and Durability of Advanced Composites: Innovative Modelling Methods and Intelligent Design presents scientific and technological research from leading composite materials scientists and engineers that showcase the fundamental issues and practical problems that affect the development and exploitation of large composite structures. As predicting precisely where cracks may develop in materials under stress is an age old mystery in the design and building of large-scale engineering structures, the burden of testing to provide "fracture safe design" is imperative. Readers will learn to transfer key ideas from research and development to both the design engineer and end-user of composite materials. This comprehensive text provides the information users need to understand deformation and fracture phenomena resulting from impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking and how these phenomena can affect reliability, life expectancy, and the durability of structures. Presents scientific and technological research from leading composite materials scientists and engineers that showcase fundamental issues and practical problems Provides the information users need to understand deformation and fracture phenomena resulting from impact, fatigue, creep, and stress corrosion cracking Enables readers to transfer key ideas from research and development to both the design engineer and end-user of composite materials

Robotics And Automation In The Food Industry

Author: Darwin G Caldwell
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0857095765
Size: 34.97 MB
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The implementation of robotics and automation in the food sector offers great potential for improved safety, quality and profitability by optimising process monitoring and control. Robotics and automation in the food industry provides a comprehensive overview of current and emerging technologies and their applications in different industry sectors. Part one introduces key technologies and significant areas of development, including automatic process control and robotics in the food industry, sensors for automated quality and safety control, and the development of machine vision systems. Optical sensors and online spectroscopy, gripper technologies, wireless sensor networks (WSN) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems are discussed, with consideration of intelligent quality control systems based on fuzzy logic. Part two goes on to investigate robotics and automation in particular unit operations and industry sectors. The automation of bulk sorting and control of food chilling and freezing is considered, followed by chapters on the use of robotics and automation in the processing and packaging of meat, seafood, fresh produce and confectionery. Automatic control of batch thermal processing of canned foods is explored, before a final discussion on automation for a sustainable food industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of expert contributors, Robotics and automation in the food industry is an indispensable guide for engineering professionals in the food industry, and a key introduction for professionals and academics interested in food production, robotics and automation. Provides a comprehensive overview of current and emerging robotics and automation technologies and their applications in different industry sectors Chapters in part one cover key technologies and significant areas of development, including automatic process control and robotics in the food industry and sensors for automated quality and safety control Part two investigates robotics and automation in particular unit operations and industry sectors, including the automation of bulk sorting and the use of robotics and automation in the processing and packaging of meat, seafood, fresh produce and confectionery