Metals and Materials: Science, Processes, Applications aims to present the science of materials in a readable and concise form that leads naturally to an explanation of the ways in which materials are processed and applied. The science of metals, or physical metallurgy, has developed naturally into the wider and more diverse discipline of materials science. The study of metals and alloys still forms a large and important part of this relatively new discipline, but it’s common to find that fundamental principles and concepts of physical metallurgy can be adapted to explain the behavior of a variety of non-metallic materials. As an aid to fully study this discipline, each chapter has been supplemented with a list of specialized references. These references include images and diagrams that illustrate the subtleties of materials, such as micrographs of grain structures and fine-scale defects, phase diagrams for metals and ceramics, electron diffraction patterns revealing atomic arrangements, specific property diagrams correlating the behavior of different materials, and slip vector diagrams for deforming crystals. Throughout this book, sufficient background and theory is provided to assist students in answering questions about a large part of a typical degree course in materials science and engineering. Some sections provide a background or point of entry for postgraduate studies and courses.